Faculty of Science (FSC)

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Now showing 1 - 20 of 105
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    Comparative Study On Effectiveness Of Citrus Limon Peelings And Cymbopogon Citratus Leaves Powder On Termites, Isoptera Rhinotimitidae.
    (Kabale University, 2024) Abeneitwe, Joshua
    Termites have long been notorious for damaging trees, furniture, and wooden houses. In response, synthetic pesticides were developed to mitigate these effects. However, their use raised new issues, such as environmental degradation, toxicity to animals and humans, and adverse impacts on the quality of yields. Consequently, biologists discovered that certain plants could serve as eco-friendly alternatives to these harmful synthetic pesticides. These plants contain secondary metabolites capable of repelling or killing termites. Interest in these botanicals has grown due to their environmental benefits and safety for non-target organisms. Studies showed that termite mortality increased with higher concentrations of plant extracts and decreased with longer exposure times. Among the tested botanicals, lemongrass extracts were more effective than lemon peels, with mortality rates of 57.14% and 42.86%, respectively.
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    Ethnobotanical Survey and Conservation Strategies of Medicinal Plants Used in Masulita Sub-County in Wakiso District.
    (Kabale University, 2024) Musoke, Ronald
    Introduction: This study aimed to document the ethnobotanical knowledge concerning medicinal plants used for treating various ailments and the associated practices in the Masulita sub-county, Wakiso district. It also sought to evaluate conservation strategies for these medicinal plants. The global surge in herbal remedy usage has heightened the risk of endangerment for many medicinal plant species. Uganda faces a particularly high risk of medicinal plant extinction due to factors such as overexploitation, habitat destruction, unsustainable harvesting practices, and increased use of herbicides. Furthermore, the shift in demographic composition towards a younger population has accelerated the erosion of Traditional Medicinal Knowledge (TMK), compounded by inadequate documentation efforts. This study focused on documenting the medicinal plants used by the residents of the Masulita sub-county for disease treatment and preserving indigenous knowledge. Methods: Sixty respondents were selected using a combination of snowball and purposive sampling methods to gather information on medicinal plant usage and community conservation practices in the Masulita sub-county. Data were collected through semi-structured questionnaires and interviews. Medicinal plant specimens were collected with the assistance of herbalists, pressed, and identified at the National Herbarium in Makerere University, Uganda. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies, pie charts, percentages, bar graphs, and column graphs were used to present the data. Results: A total of 94 medicinal plant species belonging to 39 plant families and 82 genera were documented. The most abundant taxa were Asteraceae (16%, 15 species) and Fabaceae (9%, 8 species). Leaves (53.28%), stem bark (16.39%), and roots (11.48%) were the most commonly used plant parts for preparing medicinal remedies. Decoction (27%) and oral administration (58.6%) were the predominant methods of preparation and administration, respectively. Gastrointestinal diseases (15.66%) were the most frequently treated ailments, and cultivation emerged as the primary conservation strategy. Eleven medicinal plant species were identified as scarce due to herbicide use and overexploitation. Conclusion and Recommendations: Masulita sub-county in Wakiso district harbors a diverse array of medicinal plants and possesses rich indigenous knowledge for treating various ailments. However, there has been a notable decline in the population of medicinal plant species due to increased herbicide use and overexploitation. The involvement of local and central government authorities in medicinal plant conservation and associated knowledge has been insufficient. The government of Uganda should implement conservation measures such as conservation programs, awareness campaigns, cultivation initiatives, and educational programs aimed at local residents to enhance medicinal plant conservation efforts. Furthermore, there is a pressing need for ethnobotanical studies across the Wakiso district to preserve traditional medicinal knowledge further.
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    A Study of Properties of Plasma Using Local Materials.
    (Kabale University, 2024) Kemigisha, Shallote
    This study utilized local materials, such as candles and common high school laboratory equipment, to design experiments demonstrating the unique properties of plasma as a state of matter, distinct from other states. The aim was to address the lack of practical lesson activities for the new senior topic in Uganda's revised lower secondary curriculum. The study used scientific literature to approximate plasma with locally available forms, designing and performing safe experiments to illustrate properties such as quasi-neutrality, the coexistence of independent opposite charges, response to electric fields, and temperature-dependent spectroscopy of plasma. The experiments successfully demonstrated these properties using candle flames and Bunsen burner flames.
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    Comparative Study of Vitamin C Concentration in Boiled and Roasted Gonja.
    (Kabale University, 2019) Birungi, Alido
    Gonja is a banana whose consumption for vitamin C and other nutritional benefits has risen in Uganda today. Unfortunately, the bananas (Gonja) fruits are mostly consumed cooked or roasted which reduces the concentration of vitamin C in them. Samples of the plantain (Musa paradisiaca and Musa acuminata) were obtained from the local farms located in the Rukiga district. A bunch of mature unripe Gonja was obtained from the farm for the two species (Musa paradisiaca and Musa acuminata) and transported in a cool dry bag and stored in a warm dry store for about a week to allow ripening. Fifteen fingers were detached randomly from each bunch and they were each divided into three groups so that each group had 5 fingers. The fingers in the first group were washed with clean water and then cooked in a saucepan until they were soft and ready for consumption. The fingers in the other group were peeled and then roasted on a charcoal stove while turning them regularly to allow even distribution of heat until they were wholly soft and ready for consumption. Fruits in the third group were peeled and then left raw (control experiment) 1 00g of prepared Gonja fingers from each group were then chopped using a sharp knife after which they were ground in separate motors using pestles to form pastes. 500ml of distilled water was added to each of the pasted Gonja followed by stirring and filtering. More distilled water was added to make 1-litre solutions. The concentration of vitamin C in each of the Gonja extracts was determined by redox titration of the extracts wth standard acidified potassium iodate solution in the presence of potassium iodide using a starch indicator. The study found that the fresh Gonja had the highest concentration of vitamin C (0.00063M, 0.00066M ) followed by the boiled Gonja (0.000345M, 0.00045M) while the roasted Gonja had the lowest concentration (0.00027M, 0.00036M) both in Musa paradisiaca and Musa acuminata respectively. People should consume raw and or boiled Gonja but not roasted.
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    Construction of A Force Pump as a Teaching Aid.
    (Kabale University, 2021) Muhwezi, Abel
    The project was about the construction of a force pump as a teaching aid using locally available materials. The project used materials that included a syringe that acted as a cylinder with a piston having a handle; a bottle of soda that acted as a reservoir, two valves of a bicycle tire, panga, a container with water used as the water source, pipes, and a wooden stand. During the construction of a force pump, A syringe with a piston was assembled with two valves of a bicycle tire. The syringe that acted as a cylinder with a piston and the reservoir was then mounted onto the wooden stand that enabled the force pump to operate properly under the principle of up-stroke and down-stroke. The inlet valve B and the outlet valve A were fixed in a way that during the upstroke, valve B opened and valve A closed, then during the downstroke valve B closed and valve A opened. During the upstroke, the piston drew water through an inlet valve B into the cylinder while on the down stroke, the water was discharged through an outlet valve A into the reservoir thus water was obtained through the spout.
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    The Influence of Gender Inequality on U.C.E Performance in Selected Schools in Rwanyamahembe Sub-County Mbarara District.
    (Kabale University, 2019) Kayesu, Kelvin
    The study aimed to assess the influence of gender inequality on U.CE performance in selected schools in Rwanyamahembe sub-county Mbarara district.
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    Stigating Newton's Interpolation and Lagrange Method Compared to Runge Kutt A Method in Solving First Order Differential Equations.
    (Kabale University, 2022) Gumisirlza, Catheline
    This study investigated Newton's Interpolation and Lagrange method as compared to Runge Kuta's method in solving First Order Differential Equations. It follows research questions that include quicker and faster methods of solving first-order differential equations using Newton's interpolation and Lagrange and method of solving first-order equations using Runge-Kutta with increased accuracy comparing Newton's interpolation, and Lagrange. Study results indicate that for instance for y(0.01) in example l a combination of Newton's interpolation and Lagrange gives an absolute error of 0. 00009901. Runge Kutta's second order gives an absolute error of 0.00989951. For y(0.01) a combination of Newton's interpolation and Lagrange gives an absolute error of 0. 000084 as compared to 0. 024613585 absolute error obtained by Runge Kutta second order and the study recommends that the Numerical method used (Runge Kutta) is cumbersome and has a bigger percentage error. I therefore recommend the use of combined Newton's interpolation and Lagrange method to solve . Therefore the combination of Newton's interpolation and Lagrange gives a high accuracy as compared to Runge Kutta's second order. A combination of Newton's interpolation and Lagrange is a simpler method to use since it has less iteration as compared to Runge Kutta's second order.
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    A Mathematical Model For The Dynamics of Polio.
    (Kabale University, 2021) Owobusingye, Johnan
    There is a lack of treatment for poliomyelitis and it is only prevented through immunization with live oral polio vaccine (OPV) or/and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV). Poliomyelitis is a very contagious viral infection caused by poliovirus. Children are principally attacked. In this project, we assessed the impact of vaccination in the control of the spread of poliomyelitis via a deterministic SVElR (Susceptible-Vaccinated-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered) model of infectious disease transmission, where vaccinated individuals are also susceptible, although to a lesser degree. Using Lyapunov-Lasalle methods, we proved the global asymptotic stability of the dynamics of the disease whenever Ra < I. Numerical simulations, using poliomyelitis data from Kabale Regional Referral Hospital in Kabale district, have been conducted to approve analytic results and to show the importance of vaccination coverage in the control of disease spread.
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    Mathematical Analysis of Diarrhea Model with Saturated Incidence Rate.
    (Kabale University, 2021) Musinguzi, Jason
    We present a compartmental mathematical model of (SITR) to investigate the effect of saturation treatment in the dynamical spread of diarrhea in the community. The mathematical analysis shows that the disease free and the endemic equilibrium points of the model exist. The disease-free equilibrium is locally and globally asymptotically stable when RO< I and unstable otherwise RO> I.
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    Mathematical Modelling of Cholera Transmission incorporating Media Coverage.
    (Kabale University, 2019) Muhereza, Obed
    Cholera is a gastrointestinal disease caused by a bacterium called Vibrio cholerae. The spread of the disease depends largely on social and environmental factors such as, eating food or drinking water contaminated with feaces from an infected person. Cholera outbreaks, for instance, in Uganda have led to deaths and hospitalization. Since cholera spreads and kills very fast, the effectiveness of control strategies such as vaccination, water chlorination and therapeutic treatment may be enhanced by the use of media alert and awareness campaigns. This aspect has not been considered in existing cholera models. In this study, the impact of media coverage on the spread of cholera was investigated using a mathematical model. The specific objectives of the study were to construct a mathematical model for cholera transmission incorporating media coverage, to analyse the stability of equilibrium points of the model and to evaluate the role of media coverage as a disease control strategy. Positivity and boundedness of solutions was established to ensure that the model was biologically meaningful. The model was thereafter analyzed using the stability theory of differential equations. The basic reproduction number Ra, was derived using the next generation matrix approach. The existence of equilibrium points of the model was determined. The results of stability analysis showed that the disease free equilibrium was locally asymptotically stable when R< 1 while the endemic equilibrium was locally asymptotically stable when R> 1. p which is the efficacy of media coverage has an inverse relationship with the spread of the disease, such that whenever it is high, the disease spread reduces and when it is low, the disease spread increases. This implies that, media alert and awareness campaigns are vital in controlling the spread of cholera. Based on this study, it is recommended that health practitioners embrace the use of efficacious means of media coverage to publicize awareness campaigns of an outbreak and the preventive measures.
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    Effect of Supervision on Employee Performance in Uganda: A Case Study of Shuuku Savings Cooperative SACCO in Sheema District.
    (Kabale University, 2019) Ayesiime, Peninah
    This research report was undertaken at Shuuku Savings Cooperative Sacco in Sheema District to establish the effect of Supervision on Employee Performance in Uganda: A Case Study of Shuuku Savings Cooperative Sacco in Sheema District and emphasis was also put on the different objectives namely the effect of supervision on administrators performance in Shuuku SACCO and to analyse the effect of supervision on other employee performance in Shuuku SACCO. The study employed a descriptive research design which employed both quantitative and qualitative research approaches. The study sampled 28 respondents from the target population of 32 who work with Shuuku Sacco in Sheema District. The study employed the questionnaire and the interview guides to collect data from sampled respondents in Shuuku Sacco. The research findings show that Supervision also helps administrators in learning on new ways of how to do things, supervision helps in providing a gap within the employee performance, and therefore after that gap has been realised it will promote learning in the SACCO. Supervision affects the skills of subordinates. On the other hand, poor supervision has an effect on efficiency at work according to the study whereas the majority of the respondents agreed to the idea that there is a relationship between supervision and employee performance. The study therefore recommends that Staff job satisfaction should be the top priority of supervisors. It further recommends that Supervision must be more of ideas sharing and participatory than conventional or control oriented in order to improve on performance.
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    Comparison of Variation of Vitamin C Content with Ripening Stages in Fruit Extracts of Solanum Gilo, Solanum Anguivi And Solanum Aculeastrum.
    (Kabale University, 2022) Ayebare, Happiness
    Investigation of change in the amount of vitamin C in S. aculeastrum, S. anguivi, and S. gila as a result of ripening time involved titration of aqueous extracts from green, yellow, and red fruits separately using potassium iodate. The results obtained showed the content of vitamin C in green fruits which varied as follows; aculeastrum: 0.0088M, S.anguivi: 0.0077M, and S. gila: 0.0061M. The yellow fruits had S. aculeastrum: 0.0073M, S. anguivi: 0.0062M, and S. gilo: 0.0046M, and red fruits had S. aculeastrum: 0.0058M, S. anguivi: 0.0047M, and S. glo: 0.0003M. The data revealed a decrease in the concentration of vitamin C in fruits that turned green from yellow to red. In dietary terms, these fruits should be consumed when green because in that form they contain the highest concentration of vitamin C.
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    Mathematical Modelling of the Transmission of Malaria.
    (Kabale University, 2019) Atubangire, Felix
    In this report, we present a mathematical model for the transmission of malaria by female anopheles mosquitos. We determine the invariant region in which our model system lies. We clearly show the mechanism by which malaria spreads from one person to another. The model takes in the ordinally differential equations. The basic reproduction number Ro is obtained. A stability analysis of the disease-free equilibrium was carried out for the case where there is no malaria in the population. Sensitivity analysis of the parameters to basic reproduction number. The results show that the basic reproduction number Ro is more sensitive to natural mortality. All working steps are included.
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    Effect of Tax Payment on Performance of Small-Scale Businesses in Uganda: A Case Study of Bwambara Sub-County Rukungiri District.
    (Kabale University, 2019) Akampurira, Space
    The study was about the effect of taxes on the performance of small-scale business enterprises in Uganda; A case study of Bwambara Trading Centre in Rukungiri district. A descriptive design and exploratory design were used depending on the characteristics of the study. A sample of 88 respondents was used, and data was collected using a questionnaire directed to the owners of small-scale enterprises in the area. Data was analyzed and summarised using frequencies where percentages were derived for easy interpretation. The findings of the study revealed that taxations promote funding of governments; it also affects the savings and investments of business operators. The study also revealed that taxation also causes some business people to lose jobs, and also makes increments in prices for goods and services in SMEs. The study recommends that the Government through the Ministry of Finance Planning and Economic Development call for workshops, seminars, and radio programs to educate the business community about the different forms of taxes imposed on small-scale businesses. The study revealed that the biggest problem with the tax paid is in fact that the SME community does not understand how the tax is arrived at as well as how it is paid but not because it is too high.
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    Variation of Nutrient Content in Different Irish Potato Varieties with Storage Time in Kabale District.
    (Kabale University, 2019) Nshimyimana, Evarist
    This study investigated the variation of Irish potato nutrients with storage time in Kabale municipality, kabale district. Two Irish potato varieties were selected based on common Irish potatoes grown in the area. 20 Irish potatoes from stems of two different varieties were collected from a garden. Four of the fresh Irish potatoes were peeled on arrival in the laboratory immediately. One piece of about 100g was cut from the peeled Irish potatoes and then pounded in the motor, 100ml of water was added to the products to obtain the potato extract. This was filtered the concentration of reducing sugars was determined using Benedict's solution by titration method. The same was done for the remaining 12 Irish potatoes for every two weeks. The concentration of vitamin C in each of the Irish potato extracts was· determined by redox titration of the extracts with standard acidified potassium iodate solution in the presence of potassium iodide using starch indicator. The study found out that the concentration of vitamin C reduced with storage time while the concentration of reducing sugars increased with storage time maybe because, towards germination, starch was being changed to reducing sugars.
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    Phytochemical Evaluation of Amaranthus Species.
    (Kabale University, 2019) Habiyaremye, Innocent
    Amaranthus is a widely tropical weed. It is commonly eaten as sauce, vegetable salads for its rich vitamin content. In addition it has been used in management of some diseases. This research was intended to screen amaranthus viridis, amaranthus spinosus and amaranthus blitum species for possible secondary metabolites. The plant leaves were collected from the same garden in mwanjari- kabale municipality. The aqueous extracts of respective samples was quantitatively analysed from the chemistry laboratory, Kabale University. Tannins, sterols, tripemoids, sapomns and quinones were found in the extracts all the samples. Amaranthus blitum and amaranthus viridis showed the positive results for the tripemoids. Amaranthus spinosus showed a positive result for sterols.
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    Solutions of Systems of " Order Ordinary Differential Equations Using the Combined Laplace Transform-Adomian Decomposition Method.
    (Kabale University, 2020) Byamukama, Justus
    In this paper, the combined Laplace transform-Adomian decomposition method is presented to solve systems of n" order differential equations. Theoretical considerations are being discussed. The Laplace transform and Adomian decomposition methods are combined and an n" iterative formula is generated. Some examples are presented to show the ability of the method for linear and non-linear systems of differential equations. The results obtained are in good agreement v, i th the exact solution as indicated by a small percentage error.
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    Mathematical Analysis of Diarrhea Model with Saturated Incidence Rate.
    (Kabale University, 2020) Musinguzi, Jason
    A compartmental mathematical model of (SITR)was presented to investigate the effect of saturation treatment on the dynamical spread of diarrhea in the community. The mathematical analysis shows that the disease-free and endemic equilibrium points of the model exist. The disease-free equilibrium is locally and globally asymptotically stable when RO< I and unstable otherwise RO> I.
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    Effect of Temperature on The Concentration of Ascorbic Acid in Three Selected Varieties of Cabbage Sold in Kabale Municipality Kabale District.
    (Kabale University, 2021) Bagambaki, Paul
    Cabbage, a member of the genus Brassica is among the vegetable crops cultivated and eaten by people all around the world because of its nutritional, medicinal, and lucrative purposes. The high prevalence of ascorbic acid deficiency known as scurvy mainly among the children in Kabale municipality called for the investigation of cabbage varieties with a considerable concentration of this acid to cure this kind of deficiency. Therefore, this study aimed at determining: the variety of cabbage with high ascorbic acid concentration among the three commonly eaten and sold varieties of cabbage in Kabale municipality; and the effect of temperature on the concentration of ascorbic acid in these varieties. The concentration of ascorbic acid in the three selected cabbage varieties (red, green, and white) was determined by redox titration of the solutions extracted with a standard solution of potassium iodate in the presence of potassium iodide, hydrochloric acid, and starch indicator. The sample solutions were extracted from the cabbage varieties and the ascorbic acid concentration was analyzed in the raw cabbage samples and samples incubated for fifteen minutes at temperatures of 50 °C, 70 °C, and 100 °C using a water bath. The results obtained from the raw samples of cabbage varieties indicated that the concentration of ascorbic acid was in the order of red > green > white (94.62±0.42, 73.37±0.63, 58.71±1.10 mg/100 ml respectively). The percentage loss in ascorbic acid increased with an increase in temperature i.e., (15.63-19.21 %), (26.83-53.44 %), and (54.89-71.39 %) for 50 °C, 70 °C, and 100 C temperatures respectively. From the findings of this study, it can be concluded that the red cabbage variety is the best source of ascorbic acid among the three varieties of cabbage. Cabbages should be boiled at relatively lower temperatures for them to retain much of the ascorbic acid.
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    Design and Construction of a Led Two-Dice System.
    (Kabale University, 2022) Rukundo, Ivan
    Microcontrollers are used in games like the MCU Chess, Snake, Led Tetris, Spaceship simulators, Pin Ball Machines, Poke Ball, Ludo, and Monopoly, among other games. In the MCU chess game, the microcontroller plays chess with the user through the serial port. The microcontroller initializes the chess board in memory and lets the user make the first move and the game proceeds on. The purpose of this study was to design and construct an LED two-dice system using a pie 18f452 microcontroller.