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- ItemA literature review of climate-smart landscapes as a tool in soil- water management in Sub-Saharan Africa(International Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Technovation, 2023-02-08) Turyasingura, Benson; Tumwesigye, Wycliffe; Atuhaire, Abraham; Tumushabe, Jennifer Turyatemba; Akatwijuka, , RogersWorldwide, information is needed about the social landscape management as there is no known studies that have documented how climate-smart landscape approaches improve soil and water status. In Sub-Saharan Africa, effective social landscape governance necessitates a certain amount of social capital, including trust and agreed-upon standards. Climate-smart landscapes are key to successful soil and water management but little effort have been made to critically improve effective soil and water resources. The study was guided by the specific objectives, which include examining equitable climate-smart landscapes and finding out the major challenges facing the implementation of climate-smart landscapes. Using "landscape governance" AND "climate smart landscape," 31 papers (31) were obtained from the Web of Science (WOS) and twenty-nine (27) from the Scopus databases using search engines from (1992-2022). On equitable climate-smart landscapes, it was found that multi-stakeholder participation in landscape management is an iterative and changing process that can assist in addressing and resolving disputes as well as facilitating fair negotiation procedures for underrepresented and minority groups. Proper planning and the implementation of a comprehensive planning framework that links various planning activities and decision-making processes are required for landscape approaches to be successful. The major challenges included policies and institutions, financial difficulties in the conservation of natural resources, and socio-economic issues. The novelty from this study is to inform policy makers on climate-smart landscape approaches to ease soil and water management.
- ItemA Review of the Effects of Climate Change on Water Resources in Sub-Saharan Africa(African Journal of Climate Change and Resource Sustainability, 2023-06-23) Turyasingura ,BensonWater provides different goods and services like handcraft and fishing materials, water supply for domestic use, businesses, agriculture, transport, washing, drinking, and eco-tourism. However, few studies have assessed the effects of climate change on water resources in recent years. This study investigated the relationship between water resources and climate change in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the first segment, Vos-Viewer was used to map, study the literature, and identify any gaps in order to evaluate the interdependence between water resources and climate. The study was guided by specific objectives, which include assessing the adaptation and mitigation strategies for the effects of climate on water resources. Searches for the keywords “climate change” and “water resources” were conducted to obtain literature for this study. A total of 125 papers were selected for this study from 1945–2022, from Scopus, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and Web of Science, that were found relevant for this study and were selected and discussed. Thus, the worldwide literature was used to provide a real understanding of the effects of climate change on water resources, adaptation, and mitigation measures. According to the findings of the study, cooperation networks in developing countries were not as prominent as research networks in developed countries. It was shown that irregular rainfall affects water quality and quantity by giving the water a muddy, acidic, and turbid appearance. Therefore, all stakeholders should facilitate prudent water resource usage by 695 million people who still use unimproved water facilities in sub-Saharan Africa.
- ItemAccess to finance and women entrepreneurship development in the Kigezi subregion, Uganda(Routledge Taylor & Francis group, 2022) Eton, Marus; Dianah, NkamusiimaWomen entrepreneurs are challenged by access to finance in their quest to start any entrepreneurial activity. Global business failures have not spared women entrepreneurs; hence, this study is very significant, as it may direct the path to new business venture creation by women entrepreneurs. The provision of financial support to a business enterprise does not guarantee its success or growth. The study explored the role access to finance plays in entrepreneurship development, the strategies that stimulate women’s entrepreneurship, and the relationship between access to finance and entrepreneurship development. We used beta coefficients to quantify the effects of access to finance on entrepreneurship development. The findings revealed that women entrepreneurs find it difficult to access cheap and adequate financial services. The study recommends increased funding, development of good policies, and entrepreneurship training and education for women-owned businesses in order to strengthen women’s entrepreneurship development.
- ItemAddressing Curriculum Gaps to Enhance Research Engagement Among Postgraduate Students in Low Resource Settings(2020) Frederick, SsempalaFor any country to develop, it should be able to conduct research to generate knowledge necessary to solve problems of humanity by producing necessary goods and services. Research is essential for any nation’s success. Most goods and services consumed today are products of research conducted in developed countries by post-graduate students. Unfortunately, most post-graduate students in developing countries face a lot of challenges that limit their ability to engage in original research that should be published in refereed journals and to acquire necessary patents accordingly. Curriculum gaps inhibit most graduate students in low-resource settings from engaging in productive research necessary to transform the developing country’s economy. Hence, the chapter discusses the importance of research engagement and strategies to fill curriculum gaps in the postgraduate programs to enhance research engagement among the post-graduate students in low-resource settings.
- ItemAfrican animal trypanocide resistance: A systematic review and meta-analysis(Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 2023-01-04) Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Ewan, Thomas MacLeod; Susan, Christina WelburnBackground: African animal trypanocide resistance (AATr) continues to undermine global efforts to eliminate the transmission of African trypanosomiasis in endemic communities. The continued lack of new trypanocides has precipitated drug misuse and overuse, thus contributing to the development of the AATr phenotype. In this study, we investigated the threat associated with AATr by using the major globally available chemotherapeutical agents. Methods: A total of seven electronic databases were screened for an article on trypanocide resistance in AATr by using keywords on preclinical and clinical trials with the number of animals with treatment relapse, days taken to relapse, and resistant gene markers using the PRISMA checklist. Data were cleaned using the SR deduplicator and covidence and analyzed using Cochrane RevMan®. Dichotomous outputs were presented using risk ratio (RR), while continuous data were presented using the standardized mean difference (SMD) at a 95% confidence interval. Results: A total of eight publications in which diminazene aceturate (DA), isometamidium chloride (ISM), and homidium chloride/bromide (HB) were identified as the major trypanocides were used. In all preclinical studies, the development of resistance was in the order of HB > ISM > DA. DA vs. ISM (SMD = 0.15, 95% CI: −0.54, 0.83; I2 = 46%, P = 0.05), DA vs. HB (SMD = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.47, 1.45; I2 = 0%, P = 0.86), and HB vs. ISM (SMD = −0.41, 95% CI: −0.96, 0.14; I2 = 5%, P = 0.38) showed multiple cross-resistance. Clinical studies also showed evidence of multi-drug resistance on DA and ISM (RR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.71–1.43; I2 = 46%, P = 0.16). To address resistance, most preclinical studies increased the dosage and the treatment time, and this failed to improve the patient’s prognosis. Major markers of resistance explored include TbAT1, P1/P2 transporters, folate transporters, such as F-I, F-II, F-III, and polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors. In addition, immunosuppressed hosts favor the development of AATr. Conclusion: AATr is a threat that requires a shift in the current disease control strategies in most developing nations due to inter-species transmission. Multi- drug cross-resistance against the only accessible trypanocides is a major publichealth risk, justifying the need to revise the policy in developing countries to promote control of African trypanosomiasis
- ItemAfrican Childhood “Reawakened”: Using Cultural Studies Theory in Understanding the Use of Symbolism in Camara Laye’s The African Child.(East African Journal of Traditions, Culture and Religion, 2021) Johnson, Ocan; Lillian, TindyebwaThis paper reports the findings of a pragmatic study that uses follow-up interviews as a method to investigate how participants read the language in the novel by a renowned African novelist Camara Laye. The study builds on antecedent work that has identified patterns of language presentation as techniques of characterisation in the novel “The African Child”. The article offers a spotlight on the critical use of symbolism in the novel ‘The African child’ (Laye, 1953). This article is set in a research context that brings together surveillance from cultural studies theory on the use of symbols in the novel. The results show that symbols are read significantly faster than the overall clusters which are stored as units in the brain. This pronouncement is complemented by the results of the follow-up questions which indicate that readers do not seem to refer to symbols when talking about character information, although they are able to refer to symbols when prompts are used to elicit information. Beyond the specific results of the study, this article makes a contribution to the development of complementary methods in children’s literature from Africa and it points to directions for further sub-classifications of the use of symbolism in children’s literature that could not be achieved on the basis of this data alone.
- ItemAfrican Indigenous Medicine Activities in Mbarara Municipality, Uganda(International Journal of Research in Sociology and Anthropology, 2019) Godfrey, BarigyeSome African indigenous medicine healers and neo-liberalists have misused the cherished objectives of community values and turned it into witch-craft characterized with human sacrifice, money extortion, and many more evil related practices. The study was on activities of traditional indigenous knowledge in Mbarara Municipality, Uganda. It was established that most African indigenous healers were mainly practicing herbalism, midwifery/traditional birth attendance, spirituality/foretelling, bone-setters, snake poison healers and rain-makers. The African indigenous healers were in the age group of 40 years and above, had an educational level of secondary, most of them were females, who were Banyankore, Baganda, Congolese and Swahili, and were married. Most of the beneficiaries of African indigenous medicine were farmers and Banyankore by tribe. It was concluded that African indigenous medicine practices and systems of local people are interactive technology whose dissemination is feasible, efficient, and cost-effective when learnt from village-level experts.
- ItemAllium Cepa (Onion) Extract Enhances and Protects Testicular Function and Architecture against Paraquat Induced Oxidative Damage.(International Journal of Life science and Pharma Research, 2020) Uzozie Chikere, Ofoego; Ejike, Daniel EzeAllium cepa (A. cepa) is consumed for its health benefits. This study investigated the therapeutic potentials of ethanolic extract of A. cepa bulbs against paraquat-induced testicular toxicity in animal model. Thirty Wistar rats were split into control and five test groups (n=5). Group A (Control) received feed and water; test groups (B-F) were treated orally as follows: group B (20 mg/kg b.w. of paraquat for 4weeks); group C (1000 mg/kg b.w. of A. cepa extract for 4weeks); group D (a co-administration of 20 mg/kg b.w. of paraquat and 100 mg/kg b.w. of A. cepa extract for 4weeks); group E (a co-administration of 20 mg/kg b.w. of paraquat and 1000 mg/kg b.w. of A. cepa extract for 4weeks); and group F (1000 mg/kg b.w. of A. cepa extract for 2weeks before co-administration with 20 mg/kg b.w. of paraquat for 2weeks). In the end, sperm count, morphology, motility, sera testosterone levels, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels as well as histology of the testes were assessed. Paraquat administration caused significantly (P<0.05) reduced sperm count, motility, alteration in sperm morphology and induced cell death. Oral gavage of paraquat also caused significant (P<0.05) decrease in serum testosterone and SOD levels with concomitantly elevated MDA levels. However, following the co-administration with ethanolic extract of A. cepa to experimental rats, there was an improvement in sperm parameters (count, motility and morphology) as well as in sera testosterone and SOD levels. It can be concluded that A. cepa exerts strong antioxidant effects in a dose-dependent manner in ameliorating testicular toxicity induced by paraquat in animal models.
- ItemAmaranth leaf extract protects against hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative stress in Drosophila melanogaster(BMC, 2021) Johnmark, Ndinawe; Hellen, W. KinyiObjective: Amaranths leaves are rich in ascorbic acid and polyphenol compounds which have antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate their in vivo antioxidant activity. The effect of consumption of Amaranth leaf extract on in vivo antioxidant activity, catalase enzyme activity and H2O2 induced oxidative stress in Drosophila melanogaster flies was assessed. Results: Consumption of Amaranth leaf extract was associated with increased survival on exposure to H2o2 in a dose dependent manner in Drosophila melanogaster flies. The study concludes that the ethanolic extract of Amaranth leaves offer protection against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress.
- ItemAn Investigation into Information Security Managerial Practices in Selected Public Sector Organizations.(Kabale University, 2023) Ahimbisibwe, Benjamin K.; Nabende, Peter; Musiimenta, FlorenceThe study aims to examine information security managerial practices in organisations. It was guided by three specific objectives: identification of information security practices critical to information assets management; establishment of implementation processes involved in the execution of structured information security governance; and evaluation of policies that influence information security best practices. In line with these objectives, security was acknowledged as a requisite element in protecting organizational information assets. The study covered two public sector organisations specifically, Uganda Wildlife Authority and National Forestry Authority. Focus was made on information security practices critical to managing information like human security, information classification, procedures for information labelling, compliance, standards, command and control techniques. These security practices were selected based on their importance in the protection of confidentiality, integrity and availability of information assets. Descriptive research design was adopted to describe the phenomenon under study. Being an in-depth inquiry, qualitative approach was used, survey questionnaires representing zero and one scores were designed to collect data. The respondents were purposively selected based on their knowledge in the subject area, cost-effectiveness and delivery of timely results. These respondents included information technology officers, administrative secretaries, data clerks and security guards. Findings from the field were analyzed and presented in meaningful tables. The research findings demonstrate that evaluation of users’ actions was hierarchical in nature; based on associations with tasks performed; information security practices are not aligned to guidelines set by National Information Technology Authority; there was need to establish appropriate measures to handle new information security risk in organizations. Based on these findings, recommendations that reflect the importance of examining information security managerial practices in organizations were made.
- ItemAn Investigation on The Effect of Professional Training On Journalism Ethics in Uganda(Kabale University, 2019-06) Ayebazibwe, Kukundakwe EstherThe debate on whether professional training is relevant for journalism practice has been existing, with some proposing that it is an art developed through talent and practice (Parks, 2012). Despite the efforts in training, one cannot certainly say that proper training leads to professional journalism practice. Through in-depth interviews and questionnaires, this study seeks to find out the role of professional training on the respect for journalism professional ethics. The analysis shows some of the differences in ethical perceptions between the trained and untrained journalists. The discussion on the challenges faced by journalists in Uganda reveals that journalists across the world are faced with similar challenges although their media systems and cultures may differ. Although other factors cannot be completely ruled out, the study concludes that good training affects ethical perceptions of journalists leading to better professional quality, which means that training is an important attribute in media practice. However, it also observes that there are some other factors that can affect quality journalism aside training. It recommends that all stakeholders in the media industry (media houses, media practitioners, training institutions, professional associations and government) should all work together to promote quality journalism in Uganda.
- ItemAnalgesic Appraisal of Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae) Leaf Extracts Used in Management of Oral Lesion Pain in HIV/AIDS Patients in Rodents(Scientific Research Publishing Inc., 2018-06-29) Joseph Obiezu, Chukwujekwu Ezeonwumelu; Muhammad, Ntale; Steve, Okwudili Ogbonnia; Ezera, Agwu; Julius, Kihdze Tanayen; Ahmed, Adebowale Adedeji; Okonkwo, Chukwudi Onyeka; Ambrose, Amamchukwu Akunne; Jennifer, Chibuogwu Ebosie; Frederick, ByarugabaOral lesions, diarrhoea, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, tuberculosis and urinary tract infections are some of the opportunistic infections (OIs) which arise when the CD4 cells of the HIV/AIDS patient fall below 200 cells/mm3. HIV/AIDS infection complications include tissue damage from oral lesions accompanied with pains. Pain is a disagreeable sensory and sensitive experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. This condition requires immediate treatment with analgesics and antibiotics. However, the inability of rural dwellers to afford readily available drugs is a consequence for using herbs like Bidens pilosa whose local usefulness in the management of oral lesions of HIV/AIDS has not been proven scientifically. Therefore, the objective of this study was to provide the scientific basis in rats for the traditional healers’ use of Bidens pilosa leaves’ extracts in managing pain associated with oral lesions of HIV/AIDS patients in South Western Uganda. Assessment of the analgesic effects of Bidens pilosa was conducted using acetic acid in mice, formalin-induced pain and tail flick methods in rats. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaves of Bidens pilosa produced statistically significant dose dependent inhibition of acetic acid induced pain, non dose dependent pain reduction in formalin induced pain, (p < 0.05; student t-test) and non dose dependent tail withdrawal pattern (p < 0.05, Multivariate ANOVA test). Hence, we conclude that extracts of Bidens pilosa have an analgesic basis for their local use in treatment of oral lesions associated pain in HIV/AIDS patients in South-Western Uganda.
- ItemAnalysis of Bacteriological Quality of Domestic Water Sources in Kabale Municipality, Western Uganda(Scientific Research Publishing Inc., 2019) Alex, Saturday; Johnson, RunyonyoziIn the present study, we assessed the bacteriological quality of water of drinking water sources in Kabale Municipality. A total of 28 water samples were collected from 14 water springs during the dry and wet season and analyzed for determination of Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB) using the membrane filtration method. Most water springs located in less than 20 meters away from residential areas were associated with bacterial contamination. The mean concentrations of E. coli, total coliforms, and THB were 24.07 CFU/100 ml, 85.71 CFU/100 ml, and 197.07 CFU/100 ml, respectively in the wet season. While in the dry season, the mean concentrations were 2 CFU/100 ml, 10 CFU/100 ml, and 91 CFU/100 ml for E. coli , total coliforms, and THB, respectively. There were significant differences between CFU of total coliforms, HTB, between wet and dry seasons (p = 0.026). Samples collected and analyzed during the wet season for total coliforms did not conform to WHO drinking water quality guideline value of no detection per 100 ml. The study concludes that the majority of spring water sources are located in less than 20 meters away from residential areas with significant paved areas, the presence of septic tanks and pit latrines. Wet season significantly affects the quality of domestic water sources than the dry season. The study recommends that spring water should be treated before drinking due to high bacteria concentrations which makes it unsafe for consumption.
- ItemAnalysis of E-Exams performance under COVID-19 Pandemic at Kabale University, Uganda(East African Journal Of Science ,Technology and Innovation, 2022) Phelix, Businge Mbabazi; Nicholas, Nkamwesiga; BC, BashekaThere has been a shift in a mode of conducting exams from physical appearance of students to the electronic examinations due to covid-19 pandemic. This paper presents the experience in the management of e-exams as part of the summative evaluation of students. This was achieved by establishing the readiness strategies for managing e-exams, determining the performance of e-exams management and ascertaining the challenges faced during the management of e-exams.
- ItemAn analysis of heavy metals contamination and estimating the daily intakes of vegetables from Uganda(Toxicology Research and Application, 2021) Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Eric Oloya, Otim; Herbert Izo, Ninsiima; Gerald, Zirintunda; Andrew, Tamale; Justin, Ekou; Grace Henry, Musoke; Robert, Muyinda; Kevin, Matama; Regan, Mujinya; Henry, Matovu; Fred, Ssempijja; Ejike, Daniel Eze; Mauryn, Atino; Bede, Udechukwu; Ronald, Kayima; Patrick, Etiang; Emmanuel Tiyo, Ayikobua; Stellamaris, Kembabazi; Ibe Michael, Usman; Sheu Oluwadare, Sulaiman; Phyllis Candy, Natabo; Grace Nambatya, Kyeyune; Gaber El-Saber, Batiha; Ochan, OtimEnvironmental contamination with elevated levels of copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr 6þ), cadmium (Cd), and nickel (Ni)—all states of which are found in Uganda—raises health risk to the public. Pb, Cr 6þ, Cd, and Ni for instance are generally considered nonessential to cellular functions, notwithstanding the importance of the oxidative state of the metals in bioavailability. As such, we aimed in this study (i) to evaluate heavy metal concentrations in four vegetables from a typical open-air market in Uganda, (ii) to assess the safety of consuming these vegetables against the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended limits of heavy metals consumption, and (iii) to formulate a model of estimated daily intake (EDI) among consumers in the country. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in five georeferenced markets of Bushenyi district in January 2020. Amaranthus, cabbages, scarlet eggplants, and tomatoes were collected from open markets, processed, and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Modeled EDI, principal component (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were conducted to identify relationships in the samples. Results: The levels of essential elements in the four vegetables were found to fall from Co > Cu > Fe > Zn. Those of non-essential metals were significantly higher and followed the pattern Cd > Cr > Pb > Ni. The highest EDI values were those of Cu in scarlet eggplants, Zn in amaranthus, Fe in amaranthus, Co in amaranthus, Pb in cabbages, total Cr in scarlet eggplant, Cd in cabbages and tomatoes, and Ni in cabbages. In comparison to international limits, EDIs for Zn, Cu, Co and Fe were low while Ni in cabbages were high. PCA showed high variations in scarlet eggplant and amaranthus. The study vegetables were found to be related with each other, not according to the location of the markets from where they were obtained, but according to their species by CA. Conclusion: The presence of non-essential elements above WHO limits raises policy challenges for the consumption and marketing of vegetables in the study area. Furthermore, low EDIs of essential elements in the vegetables create demand for nutritious foods to promote healthy communities
- ItemAn analysis of heavy metals contamination and estimating the daily intakes of vegetables from Uganda(Toxicology Research and Application, 2021) Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Eric, Oloya OtimEnvironmental contamination with elevated levels of copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr6þ), cadmium (Cd), and nickel (Ni)—all states of which are found in Uganda—raises health risk to the public. Pb, Cr6þ, Cd, and Ni for instance are generally considered nonessential to cellular functions, notwithstanding the importance of the oxidative state of the metals in bioavailability. As such, we aimed in this study (i) to evaluate heavy metal concentrations in four vegetables from a typical open-air market in Uganda, (ii) to assess the safety of consuming these vegetables against the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended limits of heavy metals consumption, and (iii) to formulate a model of estimated daily intake (EDI) among consumers in the country. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in five georeferenced markets of Bushenyi district in January 2020. Amaranthus, cabbages, scarlet eggplants, and tomatoes were collected from open markets, processed, and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Modeled EDI, principal component (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were conducted to identify relationships in the samples. Results: The levels of essential elements in the four vegetables were found to fall from Co > Cu > Fe > Zn. Those of non-essential metals were significantly higher and followed the pattern Cd > Cr > Pb > Ni. The highest EDI values were those of Cu in scarlet eggplants, Zn in amaranthus, Fe in amaranthus, Co in amaranthus, Pb in cabbages, total Cr in scarlet eggplant, Cd in cabbages and tomatoes, and Ni in cabbages. In comparison to international limits, EDIs for Zn, Cu, Co and Fe were low while Ni in cabbages were high. PCA showed high variations in scarlet eggplant and amaranthus. The study vegetables were found to be related with each other, not according to the location of the markets from where they were obtained, but according to their species by CA. Conclusion: The presence of non-essential elements above WHO limits raises policy challenges for the consumption and marketing of vegetables in the study area. Furthermore, low EDIs of essential elements in the vegetables create demand for nutritious foods to promote healthy communities.
- ItemAnalysis of Leaching Rate of Heavy Metals from Fly Ash at Varying Leachant pH & Cumulative Liquid to Solid Ratios(i-manager’s Journal on Material Science, 2020) Tobby, Micheal Agwe; Sharma, S. N.; Pandey, GovindFly ash (FA) is a particulate matter consisting of finely divided, non-combustible particles obtained from the flue gases arising from combustion of coal, accounts for over 80% of the total ash produced during coal combustion. In 2018 alone, about 780 million tons of FA has been generated globally, of which voluminous quantity remained unutilized, hence dumped into the environment. This continued disposal of FA into the environment makes the heavy metals contained therein to move out in the leachate generated, polluting the soil, surface and ground water sources among others. In this study, 5 sets of leaching test columns were packed with an equal quantity of air dried fly ash samples and each of them leached with leachant of pH 5.87, 6.08, 6.41, 6.46 and 7.01 and eluate from each column collected at cumulative liquid to solid (L/S) ratios in l/kg of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0. Analysis of the eluate for Copper (Cu), Selenium (Se), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni), Chromium (Cr) and Arsenic (As), revealed that the concentrations of Se at Selenium L/S of 0.1 for leachant pH of 5.87, 6.41 and 7.01, exceeded the allowable limits for non-hazardous wastes disposal into the landfills.
- ItemAnalysis of Library and Information Science/Studies (LIS) Education Today: The Inclusion of Indigenous Knowledge and Multicultural Issues in LIS Curriculum(Kabale University, 2013) G. Kabatangare, TumuhairweThe paper analyses the inclusion indigenous knowledge and multicultural issues in library and information science/studies (LIS) curricula. Using literature review the paper presents the scenario in both developed and developing countries. In North America and Europe, recognition of diversity as valuable to professionalism and necessary for generating culturally competent librarians and library staff is evident. On the contrary, LIS schools and LIS institutions and educators in developing countries of Africa have almost no record on the inclusion of indigenous knowledge and multiculturalism in LIS education. Challenges to the effective inclusion of indigenous knowledge and multiculturalism to LIS education programs in developing countries exist, and are largely perception and attitude, inadequacy in skills, and inadequacy in funding. There is a need to revise and improve the curricula for library schools, especially in the developing countries of Africa, towards the inclusion of indigenous knowledge and multicultural issues.
- ItemAnalysis of Monetary Policy Objectives as Applied to Uganda’s Economy: The Dream to Achieve the Middle-Income Status in 2020 is Gone(International Journal of Research in Engineering, IT and Social Sciences, 2020) George Stanley, Kinyata; Nafiu, Lukman AbiodunThis article analyses the effects of monetary policies in terms of monetary objectives, and instruments which are used by most monetary authorities to manage the requirements of the country’s economy and how they influence economic activities of the country. The study is centered on four policy objectives which Bank of Uganda has been using namely; full employment, price stability which includes controlling inflation and economic fluctuations, economic growth and maintenance of balance of payment equilibrium. The instruments which are bank rates, open market operations, change in reserve ratios and selective credit controls used by the central bank are dealt with in this study. Though the economic growth figures of Uganda’s economy have been in the range of 3.0 % to 6.1 % for many years, this has not demonstrated the general growth of income of Ugandans during the same period. According to the World Bank in 2019, Uganda with its population of over 42 million people has a gross domestic product of US $ 33.6 million and is placed number 3 after Kenya and Tanzania. However, in economic growth, it is number 4, after Rwanda, Tanzania and Kenya respectively. This questions the ability of the country to achieve the middle-income status by 2020 as had been predicted. The weaknesses in implementation of the monetary objectives which caused the government failure to achieve Uganda’s goal and finally the important strategies and areas which Uganda should use to generate high rates of economic growth to transfer in the economy and maintain macroeconomic stability are recommended in this aricle.