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  • ItemOpen Access
    Education of nurses in Rural Primary Health Cares to Improve Vital Care of Newborns: A Community-Based Research in Nigeria.
    (Kabale University, 2023) Eze, Nkiru Clementina; Elusoji, Christiana I.; Okafor, Christiana Nkiru; Emeh, Augusta Nkechi; Nwafor, Amuchechukwu Veronica; Obi, Ihuoma A.; Onyeabor, Juliana Odinakachukwu; Ohanme, Eugene Ohams
    This study was designed to ascertain the level of knowledge and the degree of practice of the components of Essential New-born care (ENC), and the effects of a training program on the knowledge and practice of ENC among nurses in rural Primary Health Care (PHCs) in South East Nigeria. This study was a one-group pre-test and post-test intervention design. The components of ENC considered were: New-Born Initiation of Breastfeeding, Thermoregulation, New-Born Cord Care, Newborn Eye Care, Initiation of Breathing, and Administration of Vitamin K. A Neonatal care Knowledge and Practice Assessment (NCKPA) Questionnaire tested for validity and reliability, with a Spearman’s correlation coefficient of 0.81, was used for data collection among the (96) available nurses (All-female). There was a significant improvement in the level of knowledge and extent of practice of the components of ENC following the training program. Despite the improvement, there were gaps in knowledge and practice of the components of ENC amongst the nurses in rural PHCs and affected were the level of knowledge of Eye care 40(41.6%) - pre-intervention, and least knowledge of cord care 70 (72.9%) and eye care 90(93.8%) - post-intervention. The increase in knowledge corresponded with an increase in good practice of ENC. The concern with knowledge transfer and translation of knowledge into practice could be achieved by pre-service and in-service education, updated courses, and workshops, and this will empower the nurses, getting them familiar with current trends and practices for improved child survival rates.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Impact of Essential Newborn Care education on Knowledge and Practice of New-Born Care among Nurses in Rural Primary Health Centres in Ebonyi State of Nigeria.
    (Kabale University, 2023) Eze, Clementina N.; Elusoji, Christiana I.; Okafor, Christiana N.; Emeh, Augusta N.; Obi, Ihuoma A.; Odira, Chika C. H.; Onyeabor, Juliana O.; Nwafor, Amuchechukwu V.; Ohanme, Eugene O.
    Background: This study was designed to determine the level of knowledge and the extent of the practice of the components of essential new-born care (ENC), and the effects of a training program on the knowledge and practice of ENC among nurses in rural primary health care (PHCs) in Ebonyi state Nigeria. Methods: This study was a one-group pre-test and post-test intervention design. The components of ENC considered were: New-born initiation of breastfeeding, thermoregulation, new-born cord care, newborn eye care, initiation of breathing, and administration of vitamin K. A neonatal care knowledge and practice assessment (NCKPA) questionnaire tested for validity and reliability, with a Spearman’s correlation coefficient of 0.81, was used for data collection among the (48) available nurses (All-female). Results: There was significant improvement in the level of knowledge and extent of practice of the components of ENC following the training program. Despite the improvement, there were gaps in knowledge and practice of the components of ENC amongst the nurses in rural PHCs and affected were the level of knowledge of eye care 20 (41.6%) pre-intervention, and the least knowledge of cord care 35 (72.9%) and eye care 45 (93.8%)-post-intervention. Conclusions: An increase in knowledge corresponded with an increase in good practice of ENC. The concern with knowledge transfer and translation of knowledge into practice could be achieved by pre-service and in-service education, updated courses and workshops, and this will empower the nurses, getting them familiar with current trends and practices for improved child survival rate.
  • ItemOpen Access
    A 5-year Retrospective Review of the Presentation Pattern and Management outcomes of Uterine Fibroids in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital.
    (Kabale University, 2024) Madunatu, Chimezie Michael; Okoro, Chukwuemeka Chukwubuikem; Onyejiaka, Chukwudubem Chinagorom; Enechukwu, Chukwunonso Isaiah; Ofojebe, Chukwuemeka Jude; Ani, Vincent Chinedu; Eleje, George Uchenna; Mbachu, Ikechukwu Innocent; Okafor, Chigozie Geoffrey; Okoro, Amarachukwu Doris; Okafor, Christiana Nkiru; Oguejiofor, Charlotte Blanche; Eze, Stephen Chijioke
    Background: Uterine fibroids are a common gynecological condition affecting reproductive-age women. Although fibroids are considered benign, they are a cause of major quality-of-life issues for women in their reproductive age. Objectives: To determine the prevalence, pattern of presentations and management outcomes of uterine fibroids over 5 years. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective review of the prevalence, clinical presentations, and outcome of the management of uterine fibroid over 5 years (between January 1st, 2017, and 31st December 2021) at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH). The case files of women who were managed for uterine fibroid during this period were obtained from the hospital’s Health Records department to extract relevant information. The social, demographic, and clinical data of the subjects were extracted using a designed proforma. The outcome measures included the prevalence, clinical presentations, and management outcomes of uterine fibroids. Data was analyzed using the SPSS 26.0 IBM Corporation. Results: The prevalence of uterine fibroids was 10.7% of all gynecological cases that were presented to the clinic. Participants, mean age was 39.11±7.01 years, most (75.4%) being nulliparous. Abdominal swelling was the commonest (62.3%) pattern of presentation and most of the subjects presented late with a mean duration of symptoms of 38.2±9.82 months. Surgery was the commonest method of treatment with myomectomy being the modality used in 86.5% of subjects. The common postoperative complication was anemia which was reported in 15.2% of the subjects. Conclusion: Uterine fibroid prevalence in this review of 10.66% is high and so also are the associated complications. The symptoms correlate with delayed presentations common in our locality. Surgical management comprising predominantly myomectomy and hysterectomy remained the commonest treatment option in our environment.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Self-Care Practices and the Associated Socio-Demographic Variables of Persons with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2dm) in Southeast, Nigeria.
    (Kabale University, 2024) Okafor, Christiana Nkiru; Okonkwo, Uchenna Prosper; Ani, Kenneth Umezulike; Onuora, Ethel Ogoemeka; Nwokike, Mathew; Byabagambi, Jane Turyasingura; Tamu, JohnBosco Munezero; Mfitumukiza, Valence; Nwankwo, Mercy Chinenye; Tumusiime, Alex
    Objective: The study was aimed at assessing the self-care practices and the associated socio-demographic variables of persons with T2DM in South East, Nigeria. Methodology: A cross-sectional study involving 382 persons with T2DM proportionately selected from 4 tertiary health institutions in South Eastern, Nigeria. Data was collected using the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA) and a researcher-developed questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered to persons with T2DM who attended a diabetic outpatient clinic. Data collected was analyzed in frequency percentage. Responses on SDSCA were ranked and rated as poor, moderate, and good self-care behavior. The level of significance was placed at P < .05. Result: The majority of the participants were within the age groups of 40 to 59 (46.9%) and 60 and above (46.9%); the majority (74.6%) were married while a good proportion were traders (59.7%). Also, the majority of participants (81.2%) were on oral hypoglycemic agents. Findings further showed that a good proportion (51.3% and 89.8%) of study participants had good self-care behavior in diet and medication domains respectively. Whereas the proportion of participants with poor self-care behavior was very high in foot care (75.1%) and fairly high in both self-blood sugar testing (37.7%) and exercise (37.2%) domains. Only 7.9% practiced 3-monthly laboratory blood glucose testing while 16.5% went for eye checks every 6 months. Conclusion: Individuals with diabetes mellitus have poor self-management behavior in most domains of the self-management practice. Age, gender, marital status, educational level, and occupation significantly influenced self-management practices. Hence nurses and health educators should take diabetes self-management education very seriously to help diabetes sufferers improve their self-management
  • ItemOpen Access
    Utilization of Educational School Facilities Among Students in a Selected Tertiary Institution in South East Nigeria.
    (Kabale University, 2024) Okoro, Amarachukwu Doris; Okafor, Christiana Nkiru; Menkiti, Ifeoma Oluchukwu; Egbuna, Maryann Chioma; Munezero, Tamu John Bosco; Mandera, Immaculate; Okoro, Chukwuemeka Chukwubuikem
    Background: Educational school facilities are indispensable in the teaching and learning process because they enhance understanding, application, and retention of knowledge. Despite the importance of these educational facilities in increasing the performance of students, studies assessing their utilization are scarce. Objectives: The objective of the study was to assess the utilization of educational school facilities among students of a Nursing training institution in South East Nigeria. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional, descriptive, non-experimental, questionnaire-based study. A stratified sampling technique was used to select 130 students from the first, second, and third years who participated in the study. Results: There was poor utilization of the demonstration room partly due to the poor equipment of the laboratory and the school policy of insisting that the student replace any damaged item. There was poor utilization of the computer laboratory for learning mostly due to the non-availability of internet services. Conclusion: We recommend that government and non-governmental agencies join hands in re-equipping the educational facilities and provide the needed manpower to make the facilities suitable and conducive for students.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Plasmodium falciparum genetic diversity and multiplicity of infection based on msp‑1, msp‑2, glurp and microsatellite genetic markers in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    (Kabale University, 2024) Mwesigwa, Alex; Ocan, Moses; Musinguzi, Benson; Nante, Rachel Wangi; Nankabirwa, Joaniter I.; Kiwuwa, Steven M.; Kinengyere, Alison Annet; Castelnuovo, Barbara; Karamagi, Charles; Obuku, Ekwaro A.; Nsobya, Samuel L.; Mbulaiteye, Sam M.; Byakika‐Kibwika, Pauline
    Background In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), Plasmodium falciparum causes most of the malaria cases. Despite crucial roles in disease severity and drug resistance, comprehensive data on Plasmodium falciparum genetic diversity and multiplicity of infection (MOI) are sparse in SSA. This study summarizes available information on genetic diversity and MOI, focusing on key markers (msp-1, msp-2, glurp, and microsatellites). The systematic review aimed to evaluate their influence on malaria transmission dynamics and offer insights for enhancing malaria control measures in SSA. Methods: The review was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Two reviewers conducted article screening, assessed the risk of bias (RoB), and performed data abstraction. Meta-analysis was performed using the random-effects model in STATA version 17. Results: The review included 52 articles: 39 cross-sectional studies and 13 Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT)/cohort studies, involving 11,640 genotyped parasite isolates from 23 SSA countries. The overall pooled mean expected heterozygosity was 0.65 (95% CI: 0.51–0.78). Regionally, values varied: East (0.58), Central (0.84), Southern (0.74), and West Africa (0.69). Overall pooled allele frequencies of MSP-1 alleles K1, MAD20, and RO33 were 61%, 44%, and 40%, respectively, while msp-2 I/C 3D7 and FC27 alleles were 61% and 55%. Central Africa reported higher frequencies (K1: 74%,MAD20: 51%, RO33: 48%) than East Africa (K1: 46%, MAD20: 42%, RO33: 31%). For MSP-2, East Africa had 60% and 55% for I/C 3D7 and FC27 alleles, while West Africa had 62% and 50%, respectively. The pooled allele frequency for glurpwas 66%. The overall pooled mean MOI was 2.09 (95% CI: 1.88–2.30), with regional variations: East (2.05), Central (2.37), Southern (2.16), and West Africa (1.96). The overall prevalence of polyclonal Plasmodium falciparum infections was 63% (95% CI: 56–70), with regional prevalences as follows: East (62%), West (61%), Central (65%), and South Africa (71%). Conclusion: The study shows substantial regional variation in Plasmodium falciparum parasite genetic diversity and MOI in SSA. These findings suggest a need for malaria control strategies and surveillance efforts considering regional-specific factors underlying Plasmodium falciparum infection.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Fluoxetine attenuates stress-induced depression-like behavior due to decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines in male rats.
    (2024) Nabirumbi, Ritah; Onohuean, Hope; Kato, Charles Drago; Alagbonsi, Abdullateef Isiaka; Adedeji1, Ahmed A.
    Pro-inflammatory cytokines are implicated in depression caused by both environmental- and alcohol-induced stress. The purpose of the study was to investigate the cytokine levels in serum and hippocampus following induction of depression-like behaviors (DLB) by either force. swimming test (FST) or ethanol-induced DLB (EID). We also investigated the effect of prior administration of the antidepressant drug fluoxetine on cytokines in animals exposed to both models of DLB. Methods: Animals were pretreated with fluoxetine before inducing DLB, while DLB was induced in some animals using FST and ethanol in different groups of rats without fluoxetine pretreatment. The ELISA was used to detect changes in cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α) levels in serum and hippocampus. Results: The mean levels of IL-1β and IL-6 measured in serum and hippocampus were significantly higher in FST and EID models when compared to the control group. The serum concentrations of IL-1β and IL-6 were significantly reduced in animals pre-treated with 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg of fluoxetine in both FST and EID models when compared to the untreated FST and EID groups respectively. Conclusions: In conclusion, both environment and alcohol can induce stress and DLB in rats with similar intensity, and their mechanisms of DLB induction involve activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, fluoxetine can prevent stress-induced inflammation in models of DLB.
  • ItemOpen Access
    COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among health workers in rural Uganda: A mixed methods study
    (, 2023-07-07) Ouni, Patrick Diox; Namulondo, Racheal; Wanume, Benon; Okia, David; Olupot, Peter; Nantale, Ritah; Matovu, Joseph K.B.; Napyo, Agnes; Lubaale, Yovani A. Moses; Nshakira , Nathan f; Mukunya, David
    Background: COVID-19 vaccination is the latest preventive intervention strategy in an attempt to control the global pandemic. Its efficacy has come under scrutiny because of break through infections among the vaccinated and need for booster doses. Besides, although health workers were prioritized for COVID-19 vaccine in most countries, anecdotal evidence points to high levels of reluctance to take the vaccine among health workers. We assessed COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among health workers in Dokolo dis trict, northern Uganda. Methods: This was a mixed-method, cross-sectional descriptive study. A customised self-administered data collection tool was used to collect quantitative data on characteristics, vaccination status and factors for or rejection of vaccine uptake. We conducted multivariable logistic regression to assess the associa tion between selected exposures and vaccine hesitancy using Stata version 15. Conversely, qualitative data were collected using key informant interviews (KIIs) among 15 participants that were purposively selected. Data were analysed using thematic content analysis with the help of NVivo 12.0. Results: Of the 346 health workers enrolled, (13.3% [46/346]) were vaccine hesitant. Factors associated with vaccine hesitancy included fear of side effects (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]: 2.55; 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]: 1.00, 6.49) and health workers’ lack of trust in the information provided by health authorities (AOR: 6.74; 95% CI: 2.43, 18.72). Similar factors were associated with vaccine hesitancy when we used the vaccine hesitancy score. Fear of side effects, distrust in vaccine stakeholders, and lack of trust in the vaccine were barriers to COVID-19 vaccination among health workers. Conclusion: A small proportion of health workers were found to be hesitant to take the COVID-19 vaccine in this study. The paucity of COVID-19 vaccine safety information, which eroded the health workers’ trust in the information they received on the vaccine, was responsible for health workers hesitancy to take up the vaccine in Uganda
  • ItemOpen Access
    African animal trypanocide resistance: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    (2024-02) Keneth, Iceland Kasozi; Ewan, Thomas MacLeod; Susan, Christina Welburn
    African animals resistance ( AATr) continues to undermine global efforts to eliminate the transmission of africa intrypanosomiasis in endemic communities. the continued lack of new trypanocides has participated drug misuse and over use, thus contributing to the devlopment of the AADr phenotype. in this study, we investigated the threate associated with AAtr by using the major globally available chemotherapeutic agents. Methods: A total of seven electronic databases were screened for an article on trypanocide resistance in AATr by using keywords on preclinical and clinical trials with the number of animals with treatment relapse, days taken to relapse, and resistant gene markers using the PRISMA checklist. Data were cleaned using the SR deduplicator and covidence and analyzed using Cochrane RevMan®. Dichotomous outputs were presented using risk ratio (RR), while continuous data were presented using the standardized mean difference (SMD) at a 95% confidence interval. Results: A total of eight publications in which diminazene aceturate (DA), isometamidium chloride (ISM), and homidium chloride/bromide (HB) were identified as the major trypanocides were used. In all preclinical studies, the development of resistance was in the order of HB > ISM > DA. DA vs. ISM (SMD = 0.15, 95% CI: −0.54, 0.83; I 2 = 46%, P = 0.05), DA vs. HB (SMD = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.47, 1.45; I 2 = 0%, P = 0.86), and HB vs. ISM (SMD = −0.41, 95% CI: −0.96, 0.14; I2 = 5%, P = 0.38) showed multiple cross-resistance. Clinical studies also showed evidence of multi-drug resistance on DA and ISM (RR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.71–1.43; I2 = 46%, P = 0.16). To address resistance, most preclinical studies increased the dosage and the treatment time, and this failed to improve the patient’s prognosis. Major markers of resistance explored include TbAT1, P1/P2 transporters, folate transporters, such as F-I, F-II, F-III, and polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors. In addition, immunosuppressed hosts favor the development of AATr.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Ugochukwu, Oliver Ukachi
    (Oxford University Press, 2023-02-09) Maduabuchi , Patrick Aja; Chukwu, Chinecherem Adanna; Okechukwu, Ugwu Paul Chima; Anthony, Boniface Ale; Chinedu , Peter Agu; Deusdedi, Tusubira; Chukwu, Darlington C; Onyedika, Gabriel Ani; Ugbala, Ezebuilo Ekpono; Akobi , Hilary Ogwoni; Awoke , Joshua Nonso; Ogbu, Patience N; Aja, Lucy; Orji, Obasi Uche; Nweke, Chinoso Peter; Egwu, Chinedu; Ekpono, Ejike Ugbala; Ewa, Gift Onyinyechi; Igwenyi, Ikechuku Okorie; Esther, Alum Ugo; Uti, Daniel Ejim; Offor, Christian Emeka; Ifie, Josiah E.; Njoku, Amaobichukwu; Kenneth, Ekenechukwu; Ejike, Daniel Eze
    OBJECTIVES: This study looked at how CMSO affected male Wistar albino rats' liver damage caused by bisphenol A. METHODS: The standard HPLC method was used to assess the CMSO's phenolic content. Then, six (n = 8) groups of forty-eight (48) male Wistar rats (150 20 g) each received either CMSO or olive oil before being exposed to BPA for 42 days. Groups: A (one milliliter of olive oil, regardless of weight), B (BPA 100 mg/kg body weight (BW)), C (CMSO 7.5 mg/kg BW), D (CMSO 7.5 mg/kg BW + BPA 100 mg/kg BW), E (CMSO 5.0 mg/kg BW + BPA 100 mg/kg BW), and F (CMSO 2.5 mg/kg BW + BPA 100 mg/kg BW). KEY FINDINGS: A surprising abundance of flavonoids, totaling 17.8006 10.95 g/100 g, were found in the HPLC data. Malondialdehyde, liver enzymes, reactive oxygen species, total bilirubin, and direct bilirubin levels were all significantly elevated by BPA (p 0.05). Additionally, nuclear factor-B, interleukin-6, interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor, and histological alterations were all considerably (p 0.05) caused by BPA. The altered biochemical markers and histology were, however, noticeably recovered by CMSO to a level that was comparable to the control. CONCLUSION: Due to the abundance of flavonoid components in the oil, CMSO protects the liver from BPA-induced hepatotoxicity by lowering oxidative stress and inflammatory reactions
  • ItemOpen Access
    Hepatoprotective potential of Tamarindus indica following prenatal aluminum exposure in Wistar rat pups
    (Elsevier, 2023-03-04) Helen Ruth Yusuf a , Sunday Abraham Musa a , Abel Nosereme Agbon , Ejike Daniel Eze , Akeem Ayodeji Okesina , Ismail Onanuga , Theophilus Pius , Victor Archibong , Mario Edgar Fernandez Diaz , Juma John Ochieng , Nicholas Kusiima , Bot Yakubu Sunday , Ibe Michael Usman
    Over time, the use of plant-derived agents in the management of various human health conditions has gained a lot of attention. The study assessed the hepatoprotective potential of ethyl acetate fraction Tamarindus indica leaves (EFTI) during prenatal aluminum chloride exposure. Pregnant rats were divided into 5 groups (n = 4); Group I rats were administered 2 ml kg− 1 of distilled water (negative control), Group II rats received only 200 mg kg− 1 aluminum chloride (positive control), Group III rats were administered 200 mg kg− 1 aluminum chloride and 400 mg kg− 1 EFTI, Group IV rats were administered 200 mg kg− 1 aluminum chloride and 800 mg kg− 1 EFTI, Group V rats were administered 200 mg kg− 1 aluminum chloride and 300 mg kg− 1 Vit E (comparative control). On postnatal day 1, the pups were euthanized, and liver tissues were harvested for the biochemical study (tissue levels of malondialdehyde, caspase-3, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phos - phatase, and alanine aminotransferases) and the liver histological examination. The administration of EFTI was marked with significant improvement in the tissue levels of malondialdehyde, caspase-3, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and alanine aminotransferases. There was a marked improvement in histopathological changes associated with prenatal aluminum chloride exposure. In conclusion, the administration of EFTI was protective during prenatal aluminum chloride exposure of the liver in Wistar rats, and is mediated by the anti-lipid peroxidative, antiapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory activity of EFTI.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Tracheostomy-related indications, early complications and their predictors among patients in low resource settings: a prospective cohort study in the pre-COVID-19 era
    (BMC Surgery, 2023-02-08) Nyanzi, Daniel J.; Daniel, Atwine; Kamoga, Ronald; Birungi, Caroline; Nansubuga, Caroline A.; Nyaiteera, Victoria; Nakku, Doreen
    Background Tracheostomy is a life-saving procedure whose outcomes may vary between hospitals based on dis parities in their existing expertise. We aimed at establishing the indications, early tracheostomy-related complications and their associated factors in Uganda. Methods In a prospective cohort study, we consecutively enrolled one-hundred patients, both adults and children 2 h post-tracheostomy procedure. At baseline, information on patients’ socio-demographics, tracheostomy indica tions, pre- and post-procedural characteristics was collected through researcher administered questionnaires and from medical records. Clinical examination was performed at baseline but also at either day 7 or whenever a trache ostomy-related complication was suspected during the 7 days follow-up. Comparison of patients’ baseline charac teristics, tracheostomy indications and complications across two hospitals was done using Pearson’s chi-square. For predictors of early tracheostomy complications, bivariate and multivariate analysis models were ftted using binomial regression in STATA 13.0 software. Results All patients underwent surgical tracheostomy. Majority were adults (84%) and males (70%). The common est tracheostomy indications were; pulmonary toilet (58%) and anticipated prolonged intubation (42%). Overall, 53% (95% CI: 43.0 – 62.7) had early complications with the commonest being tube obstruction (52.6%). Independent pre dictors of early tracheostomy-related complications were; anticipated prolonged intubation as an indication (RR=1.8, 95%CI: 1.19 – 2.76), Bjork fap tracheal incision (RR=1.6, 95%CI: 1.09 – 2.43), vertical tracheal incision (RR=1.53, 95%CI: 1.02 – 2.27), and age below 18 years (RR=1.22, 95%CI: 1.00 – 1.47). Conclusion Pulmonary toilet is the commonest tracheostomy indication at major hospitals in Uganda. The incidence of early tracheostomy complications is high and majorly related to post-procedure tracheostomy tube management. Having anticipated prolonged intubation as an indication for tracheostomy, a Bjork fap or vertical tracheal incisions and being a child were associated with increased risk of complications. Emphasis on multidisciplinary team care,standardization of tracheostomy care protocols, and continuous collection of patient data as well as paying attention to patient quality of life factors such as early return to oral feeding, ambulation and normal speech may have great potential for improved quality of tracheostomy care in low resource settings.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Environmental justice in South Africa: the dilemma of informal settlement residents
    (GeoJournal., 2023) Ruhiiga, T. M.; Kekana, H. N.,; Ndou ·, N. N.
    The concept of environmental justice is well established in the literature; however, schol- ars still battle to agree on what it really means. This concept has become more relevant to the studies of informal settlements amongst others. The location and environmental variables in informal settlements suggests a variety of injustices that comes with loca- tion, limited access to water, poor or lack of sanita- tion, challenges with transport availability, accessibil- ity, affordability, and lack of other social amenities. These and many other socio-economic needs forms part of the value chain of environmental justice debates across the world. This paper deals with envi- ronmental justice in the informal settlements of Kos- mos, in the Madibeng Local Municipality, Bojanala Region in the North-West Province of South Africa.The paper highlights some of the environmental chal- lenges faced by the informal settlement residents such as pollution, waste management (landfill sites, waste collection) sanitation and water provision. The paper explores how the Kosmos informal settlement com- munity has been excluded from decision making pro- cesses regarding their own environment and consid- ers the levels of environmental injustices commonly associated with this kind of practice.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Green tea silver nanoparticles improve physiological motor and cognitive function in BALB/c mice during inflammation
    (2023) Herbert Izo, Ninsiima; Ejike, Daniel Eze; Kenneth, Ssekatawa; Halima, Nalugo; Caroline, Asekenye; David, Onanyang; Edson Ireeta, Munanura; Moses, Ariong; Kevin, Matama; Gerald, Zirintunda; Ngala Elvis, Mbiydzenyuy; Fred, Ssempijja; Adam Moyosore, Afodun; Ibe Michael, Usman; Oscar Hilary, Asiimwe; Julius, Tibyangye; Keneth Iceland, Kasozi
    Information on the basic changes associated with green tea small molecules in acute inflammation is deficient. The purpose of the study was to characterize and establish the effects of green tea silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) following inflammation in BALB/c male mice. In this study, green tea silver nitrate nanoparticles were characterized and the extract were made up to constitute high (100%), medium (10%), and low (1%) concentrations for administration. Acute inflam- mation was induced in groups I–V of the experimental rodents by injecting 0.5 ml/kg of fresh egg albumin on the subplantar surface of the right hind paw and animals were monitored for 36 h. Group I–III were administered 100%, 10%, 1% green tea nanoparticles extract while group IV was given diclofenac. Group V was the positive control while group VI was the negative control that received the vehicle. Paw edema was measured at a 2 h interval for 3 days, while the pain was assessed by measuring the locomotion activity using the voluntary wheel running and the anxiety- like behavior. Hypersensitivity was measured through the temperature sensation experiment and a non-linear regression analysis was done. Here, synthesized green tea AgNPs registered anabsorbance band at 460 nm, phytochemicals due to presence of organic functional groups of O––C––O of oxycarbons, of C––C of a conjugate alkene, C––O of a stretching bond of a secondary alcohol. The silver green tea nanoparticles were spherical, covered by a slimy layer, capped and stable. Green tea AgNPs significantly decreased temperature hypersensitivity in BALB/c male mice and this demonstrated their protective effects. Low concentrations of green tea nanoparticles inhibited edema thus mimicking effects of diclofenac, however, the percentage of inhibition was highest in medium and high silver-tea nanoparticles concentrations demonstration the impor- tance of concentration in therapeutics. Anxiety was lowest in BALB/c male mice treated with high concentrations of silver green tea nanoparticles, and this led to increased locomotory activity in mice. Green tea AgNPs have strong anti-inflammatory effects at high concentrations. Concen- trations of green tea AgNPs modulated basic sensory and motor behaviors in BALB/c male mice demonstrating their importance in complementary and integrative medical practice.
  • ItemOpen Access
    An analysis of heavy metals contamination and estimating the daily intakes of vegetables from Uganda
    (Toxicology Research and Application, 2021) Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Eric Oloya, Otim; Herbert Izo, Ninsiima; Gerald, Zirintunda; Andrew, Tamale; Justin, Ekou; Grace Henry, Musoke; Robert, Muyinda; Kevin, Matama; Regan, Mujinya; Henry, Matovu; Fred, Ssempijja; Ejike, Daniel Eze; Mauryn, Atino; Bede, Udechukwu; Ronald, Kayima; Patrick, Etiang; Emmanuel Tiyo, Ayikobua; Stellamaris, Kembabazi; Ibe Michael, Usman; Sheu Oluwadare, Sulaiman; Phyllis Candy, Natabo; Grace Nambatya, Kyeyune; Gaber El-Saber, Batiha; Ochan, Otim
    Environmental contamination with elevated levels of copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr 6þ), cadmium (Cd), and nickel (Ni)—all states of which are found in Uganda—raises health risk to the public. Pb, Cr 6þ, Cd, and Ni for instance are generally considered nonessential to cellular functions, notwithstanding the importance of the oxidative state of the metals in bioavailability. As such, we aimed in this study (i) to evaluate heavy metal concentrations in four vegetables from a typical open-air market in Uganda, (ii) to assess the safety of consuming these vegetables against the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended limits of heavy metals consumption, and (iii) to formulate a model of estimated daily intake (EDI) among consumers in the country. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in five georeferenced markets of Bushenyi district in January 2020. Amaranthus, cabbages, scarlet eggplants, and tomatoes were collected from open markets, processed, and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Modeled EDI, principal component (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were conducted to identify relationships in the samples. Results: The levels of essential elements in the four vegetables were found to fall from Co > Cu > Fe > Zn. Those of non-essential metals were significantly higher and followed the pattern Cd > Cr > Pb > Ni. The highest EDI values were those of Cu in scarlet eggplants, Zn in amaranthus, Fe in amaranthus, Co in amaranthus, Pb in cabbages, total Cr in scarlet eggplant, Cd in cabbages and tomatoes, and Ni in cabbages. In comparison to international limits, EDIs for Zn, Cu, Co and Fe were low while Ni in cabbages were high. PCA showed high variations in scarlet eggplant and amaranthus. The study vegetables were found to be related with each other, not according to the location of the markets from where they were obtained, but according to their species by CA. Conclusion: The presence of non-essential elements above WHO limits raises policy challenges for the consumption and marketing of vegetables in the study area. Furthermore, low EDIs of essential elements in the vegetables create demand for nutritious foods to promote healthy communities
  • ItemOpen Access
    Taurine Prevented Biochemical Alterations in Chronic Restraint-Stressed Wistar Rats
    (FUW Trends in Science & Technology Journal,, 2022) Iliya, Ezekiel; Agnes Igimi, Odey; Stephen Olawale, Ajayi; Ejike, Daniel Eze; Obioha, Mary
    Stress has the potential of altering physiological homeostasis. The body’s ability to cope under stressful stimuli is a vital determinant of health and disease conditions. In this study, Wistar rats were weighed and randomly allocated into four groups (n=6): group A: control (1 ml/kg of distilled water), group B: (100 mg/kg of taurine), group C: (200 mg/kg taurine) and group D: received 400 mg/kg taurine. The treatments were administered once daily (60 minutes) prior to the commencement of the stress sessions by oral gavage for 21 days. During the experiment, concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and activity of acetylcholinesterase were evaluated in the fore brain homogenate samples. Other biochemical parameters assayed in the serum were the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The result revealed significant (p < 0.05) increase in the brain AChE activity in taurine 100 mg/kg when compared to the control group. Also there was significant (p < 0.05) increase in total protein in all the taurine treated groups but a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in albumin in the group that was administered 100 mg/kg taurine when compared with 200 and 400 mg/kg groups. There was no significant (p > 0.05) difference in the serum MDA concentration and activities of SOD, CAT and GPx in all the taurine treated groups when compared with the control group. The results of this study suggested that, taurine has immense potential as an anti-stress agent of great therapeutic relevance
  • ItemOpen Access
    Etracarpidium Conophorum Extract Exhibits Anti-Fatigue Activity in Rats Via Reduced Protein Catabolism, Increased Antioxidant Status and Delayed Lactate Elevation
    (FUDMA Journal of Sciences (FJS), 2021) Ugochukwu Vincent, Igbokwe; Ejike, Daniel Eze; Moses Dele, Adams; Karimah Mohammed, Rabiu,; Iliya, Ezekiel; Prisca Ojochogu, Ajeka; Adam Moyosore, Afodun
    Thirty rats of both sexes were assigned into 5 categories of six animals apiece. Animals in the unadministered (control) group were placed on distilled water. Group 1M and Group 1F animals were administered 500 mg/kg body weight (b.w) of T. conophorum aqueous nut extract whereas animals in Group 2M and Group 2F were administered 750 mg/kg dosage of the extricate (0.5 ml) orally once daily for 32 days. Phytoconstituents present in the extract include: saponins, flavonoids, tannins, phenols and alkaloids. The extract at 750mg/kg b.w notably (p<0.05) raised extracellular glucose in masculine rats when matched with males that received 500 mg/kg b.w. The 500 mg/kg dose of the extract appreciably (p<0.05) elevated BUN in both sexes, but with reduction in both groups at 750 mg/kg b.w when juxtaposed with their respective untreated animals. The extract at 500 mg/kg b.w increased LDH activity in male group when compared with male rats that received 750 mg/kg dose. The 750-extract dosage did not statistically (p>0.05) alter LDH activity in both sexes. The extract at 500 and 750mg/kg b.w increased the 3rd‒6th swim in male rats. Substantive (p<0.05) rise in swimming endurance time was first noticed at the 2nd swim when matched up with the control and group treated 500 mg/kg b.w, in female rats. Sequel to these research findings, it is hypothesized that the anti-weakness effect of T. conophorum might be adduced to delayed increase in lactate and reduction in protein catabolism.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Borassus aethiopum (Mart.) ethanol fruit extract reverses alloxan-treatment alterations in experimental animals
    (Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism 15 (2022) 429–44, 2022) Moses Dele, Adams; Ejike, Daniel Eze
    BACKGROUND: Borassus aethiopum fruit is claimed to be used for the management of diabetes without scientific validation. OBJECTIVE: This study seeks to evaluate the antihyperglycaemic activity of ethanol fruit extract of Borassus aethiopum in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: 36 rats were placed in six groups (i-vi) (n = 6). Animals in group i (standard) were given 0.4 mls of distilled water (d.w) whereas the ones assigned to group ii, iii, iv, v and vi which were induced into diabetes (by intake of 140 mg/kg body weight [b.w] of alloxan) were also respectively given d.w, 50 mg/kg b.w of metformin, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg b.w of ethanol fruit extract of Borassus aethiopum, once daily for 14 days. RESULTS: Flavonoid found in the extract (24.04 mg/ml) occurred the most with phenolic (0.35 mg/ml) being the least. While alloxan substantially (p < 0.05) increased the levels of some biological molecules and enzyme activity, it lowered those of others. The extract however significantly (p < 0.05) reversed all the alloxan-induced alterations, with the extract at 100 mg/kg b.w producing figures that compared (p > 0.05) well with those of the d.w treated non-diabetic animals and metformin-treated diabetic animals. The extract also renewed the wholeness of histological damage in the pancreas. CONCLUSION: The bioactive agents of B. aethiopum presented antihyperglycaemic property by preventing diabetes via reversal of alloxan-treatment alterations in the animals
  • ItemOpen Access
    ucumeropsis mannii seed oil protects against Bisphenol A- induced testicular mitochondrial damages
    (Food Science & Nutritution, 2022) Patrick Maduabuchi, Aja; Hilary Akobi, Ogwoni; Peter Chinedu, Agu; Ejike Ugbala, Ekpono; Joshua Nonso, Awoke; Oliver Ugochukwu, Ukachi; Obasi Uche, Orji; Boniface Anthony, Ale; Chinonso Peter, Nweke; Esther Ugo, Alum; Darlington C., Chukwu; Christian E., Offor; Atamgba Agbor, Asuk; Ejike, Daniel Eze; Ojochenemi E., Yakubu; J. B., Akob; Onyedika Gabriel, Ani; Chinaza Godswill, Awuchi
    here has been increasing search for the ameliorative properties of seed oils against toxicants. bisphenol A acts as an estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemical capable of causing male infertility. This study aimed to explore Cucumeropsis mannii seed oil effects against mitochondrial damage in rats using bisphenol A. Forty-eight rats were randomly assigned to six groups (n = 6) of eight rats each and fed the same food and water for 6 weeks. The group A rats were given 1 mL olive oil, while the ones in group B were given bisphenol A at 100 mL/kg body weight via oral route. Group C received C. mannii seed oil 7.5 mL/kg body weight C. mannii seed oil, while group D, group E, and group F were pre-administered bisphenol A at 100 mL/kg body weight, followed by treatment with C. mannii seed oil at 7.5, 5, and 2.5 mL/kg body weight, respectively. Antioxidant enzymes, glutathione, reactive oxygen species, testicular volume, malon- dialdehyde, body weight, and testicular studies were done using standard methods. The results of the bisphenol A-administered group showed a significant decrease in the antioxidant enzymes, glutathione, body weight, and testicular volume with eleva- tion in the levels of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde, and testicular indices. BPA + CMSO-treated group showed a significant increase in GPx activity compared with BPA-exposed rats. CMSO treatment significantly increased catalase activity in comparison with that of rats exposed to BPA. Remarkably, C. mannii seed oil and bi- sphenol A co-administration significantly reversed the abnormalities observed in the dysregulated biochemical biomarkers. Our findings suggest that C. mannii seed oil has considerable antioxidant potential which can be explored in therapeutic development against systemic toxicity induced by exposure to bisphenol A. Cucumeropsis mannii seed oil protects against bisphenol A-induced testicular mitochondria damages.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Behavioural Response To Self-Medication Practice Before and During Covid-19 Pandemic in Western Uganda
    (Patient Preference and Adherence, 2022) Samuel Sunday, Dare; Ejike, Daniel Eze; Isaac, Echoru; Ibe Michael, Usman; Fred, Ssempijja; Edmund Eriya, Bukenya; Robinson, Ssebuufu
    Background: Self-medication has become a serious public health problem posing great risks, especially with the increasing number of cases of COVID-19 disease globally and in Uganda. This may be partly because of the absence of a recognized treatment for the disease, however, the differing prevalence and nature from country to country may influence human behavioral responses. Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the behavioral response to self-medication practices during the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown in comparison to the pre-COVID period in Western Uganda. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted from June to August 2020 in western Uganda using online Google forms and printed questionnaires to investigate the level of self-medication practice before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. This included 280 participants, aged 18 and above who consented to participate in the study. Participants were selected using a convenience sampling technique, and sampling was done by sending a structured online questionnaire via Google forms and printed questionnaires to participants who did not use the online Google forms. Results: Respondents that knew about self-medication were 97% of the 272 participants. Those that are aware of self-medication, have heard about it either through different avenues. Respondents who practiced self-medication before the COVID-19 pandemic were 239 (88%); those who practiced self-medication during the COVID-19 pandemic were 156 (57%); those that did not were 115 (43%). There was a statistically significant decrease in the number of respondents who practice self-medication during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown compared to the practice before the pandemic lockdown. p < 0.05 at 95% confidence interval (OR = 5.39, 95% CI = 3.48, 8.32). Conclusion: Our investigation showed adequate knowledge of self-medication and a high level of self-medication practice with a decrease in self-medication practices during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown compared to the practice before the lockdown