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- ItemAllium Cepa (Onion) Extract Enhances and Protects Testicular Function and Architecture against Paraquat Induced Oxidative Damage.(International Journal of Life science and Pharma Research, 2020) Uzozie Chikere, Ofoego; Ejike, Daniel EzeAllium cepa (A. cepa) is consumed for its health benefits. This study investigated the therapeutic potentials of ethanolic extract of A. cepa bulbs against paraquat-induced testicular toxicity in animal model. Thirty Wistar rats were split into control and five test groups (n=5). Group A (Control) received feed and water; test groups (B-F) were treated orally as follows: group B (20 mg/kg b.w. of paraquat for 4weeks); group C (1000 mg/kg b.w. of A. cepa extract for 4weeks); group D (a co-administration of 20 mg/kg b.w. of paraquat and 100 mg/kg b.w. of A. cepa extract for 4weeks); group E (a co-administration of 20 mg/kg b.w. of paraquat and 1000 mg/kg b.w. of A. cepa extract for 4weeks); and group F (1000 mg/kg b.w. of A. cepa extract for 2weeks before co-administration with 20 mg/kg b.w. of paraquat for 2weeks). In the end, sperm count, morphology, motility, sera testosterone levels, malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels as well as histology of the testes were assessed. Paraquat administration caused significantly (P<0.05) reduced sperm count, motility, alteration in sperm morphology and induced cell death. Oral gavage of paraquat also caused significant (P<0.05) decrease in serum testosterone and SOD levels with concomitantly elevated MDA levels. However, following the co-administration with ethanolic extract of A. cepa to experimental rats, there was an improvement in sperm parameters (count, motility and morphology) as well as in sera testosterone and SOD levels. It can be concluded that A. cepa exerts strong antioxidant effects in a dose-dependent manner in ameliorating testicular toxicity induced by paraquat in animal models.
- ItemAmaranth leaf extract protects against hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative stress in Drosophila melanogaster(BMC, 2021) Johnmark, Ndinawe; Hellen, W. KinyiObjective: Amaranths leaves are rich in ascorbic acid and polyphenol compounds which have antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate their in vivo antioxidant activity. The effect of consumption of Amaranth leaf extract on in vivo antioxidant activity, catalase enzyme activity and H2O2 induced oxidative stress in Drosophila melanogaster flies was assessed. Results: Consumption of Amaranth leaf extract was associated with increased survival on exposure to H2o2 in a dose dependent manner in Drosophila melanogaster flies. The study concludes that the ethanolic extract of Amaranth leaves offer protection against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress.
- ItemAnalgesic Appraisal of Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae) Leaf Extracts Used in Management of Oral Lesion Pain in HIV/AIDS Patients in Rodents(Scientific Research Publishing Inc., 2018-06-29) Joseph Obiezu, Chukwujekwu Ezeonwumelu; Muhammad, Ntale; Steve, Okwudili Ogbonnia; Ezera, Agwu; Julius, Kihdze Tanayen; Ahmed, Adebowale Adedeji; Okonkwo, Chukwudi Onyeka; Ambrose, Amamchukwu Akunne; Jennifer, Chibuogwu Ebosie; Frederick, ByarugabaOral lesions, diarrhoea, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, tuberculosis and urinary tract infections are some of the opportunistic infections (OIs) which arise when the CD4 cells of the HIV/AIDS patient fall below 200 cells/mm3. HIV/AIDS infection complications include tissue damage from oral lesions accompanied with pains. Pain is a disagreeable sensory and sensitive experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. This condition requires immediate treatment with analgesics and antibiotics. However, the inability of rural dwellers to afford readily available drugs is a consequence for using herbs like Bidens pilosa whose local usefulness in the management of oral lesions of HIV/AIDS has not been proven scientifically. Therefore, the objective of this study was to provide the scientific basis in rats for the traditional healers’ use of Bidens pilosa leaves’ extracts in managing pain associated with oral lesions of HIV/AIDS patients in South Western Uganda. Assessment of the analgesic effects of Bidens pilosa was conducted using acetic acid in mice, formalin-induced pain and tail flick methods in rats. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaves of Bidens pilosa produced statistically significant dose dependent inhibition of acetic acid induced pain, non dose dependent pain reduction in formalin induced pain, (p < 0.05; student t-test) and non dose dependent tail withdrawal pattern (p < 0.05, Multivariate ANOVA test). Hence, we conclude that extracts of Bidens pilosa have an analgesic basis for their local use in treatment of oral lesions associated pain in HIV/AIDS patients in South-Western Uganda.
- ItemAn analysis of heavy metals contamination and estimating the daily intakes of vegetables from Uganda(Toxicology Research and Application, 2021) Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Eric Oloya, Otim; Herbert Izo, Ninsiima; Gerald, Zirintunda; Andrew, Tamale; Justin, Ekou; Grace Henry, Musoke; Robert, Muyinda; Kevin, Matama; Regan, Mujinya; Henry, Matovu; Fred, Ssempijja; Ejike, Daniel Eze; Mauryn, Atino; Bede, Udechukwu; Ronald, Kayima; Patrick, Etiang; Emmanuel Tiyo, Ayikobua; Stellamaris, Kembabazi; Ibe Michael, Usman; Sheu Oluwadare, Sulaiman; Phyllis Candy, Natabo; Grace Nambatya, Kyeyune; Gaber El-Saber, Batiha; Ochan, OtimEnvironmental contamination with elevated levels of copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr 6þ), cadmium (Cd), and nickel (Ni)—all states of which are found in Uganda—raises health risk to the public. Pb, Cr 6þ, Cd, and Ni for instance are generally considered nonessential to cellular functions, notwithstanding the importance of the oxidative state of the metals in bioavailability. As such, we aimed in this study (i) to evaluate heavy metal concentrations in four vegetables from a typical open-air market in Uganda, (ii) to assess the safety of consuming these vegetables against the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended limits of heavy metals consumption, and (iii) to formulate a model of estimated daily intake (EDI) among consumers in the country. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in five georeferenced markets of Bushenyi district in January 2020. Amaranthus, cabbages, scarlet eggplants, and tomatoes were collected from open markets, processed, and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Modeled EDI, principal component (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were conducted to identify relationships in the samples. Results: The levels of essential elements in the four vegetables were found to fall from Co > Cu > Fe > Zn. Those of non-essential metals were significantly higher and followed the pattern Cd > Cr > Pb > Ni. The highest EDI values were those of Cu in scarlet eggplants, Zn in amaranthus, Fe in amaranthus, Co in amaranthus, Pb in cabbages, total Cr in scarlet eggplant, Cd in cabbages and tomatoes, and Ni in cabbages. In comparison to international limits, EDIs for Zn, Cu, Co and Fe were low while Ni in cabbages were high. PCA showed high variations in scarlet eggplant and amaranthus. The study vegetables were found to be related with each other, not according to the location of the markets from where they were obtained, but according to their species by CA. Conclusion: The presence of non-essential elements above WHO limits raises policy challenges for the consumption and marketing of vegetables in the study area. Furthermore, low EDIs of essential elements in the vegetables create demand for nutritious foods to promote healthy communities
- ItemAn analysis of heavy metals contamination and estimating the daily intakes of vegetables from Uganda(Toxicology Research and Application, 2021) Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Eric, Oloya OtimEnvironmental contamination with elevated levels of copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr6þ), cadmium (Cd), and nickel (Ni)—all states of which are found in Uganda—raises health risk to the public. Pb, Cr6þ, Cd, and Ni for instance are generally considered nonessential to cellular functions, notwithstanding the importance of the oxidative state of the metals in bioavailability. As such, we aimed in this study (i) to evaluate heavy metal concentrations in four vegetables from a typical open-air market in Uganda, (ii) to assess the safety of consuming these vegetables against the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended limits of heavy metals consumption, and (iii) to formulate a model of estimated daily intake (EDI) among consumers in the country. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in five georeferenced markets of Bushenyi district in January 2020. Amaranthus, cabbages, scarlet eggplants, and tomatoes were collected from open markets, processed, and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Modeled EDI, principal component (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were conducted to identify relationships in the samples. Results: The levels of essential elements in the four vegetables were found to fall from Co > Cu > Fe > Zn. Those of non-essential metals were significantly higher and followed the pattern Cd > Cr > Pb > Ni. The highest EDI values were those of Cu in scarlet eggplants, Zn in amaranthus, Fe in amaranthus, Co in amaranthus, Pb in cabbages, total Cr in scarlet eggplant, Cd in cabbages and tomatoes, and Ni in cabbages. In comparison to international limits, EDIs for Zn, Cu, Co and Fe were low while Ni in cabbages were high. PCA showed high variations in scarlet eggplant and amaranthus. The study vegetables were found to be related with each other, not according to the location of the markets from where they were obtained, but according to their species by CA. Conclusion: The presence of non-essential elements above WHO limits raises policy challenges for the consumption and marketing of vegetables in the study area. Furthermore, low EDIs of essential elements in the vegetables create demand for nutritious foods to promote healthy communities.
- ItemAnnona muricata Linn and Khaya grandifoliola C.DC. Reduce Oxidative Stress In Vitro and Ameliorate Plasmodium berghei-Induced Parasitemia and Cytokines in BALB/c Mice(Journal of Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine, 2021) Hope, Onohuean; Abdullateef I, Alagbonsi; Keneth Iceland, KasoziBackground. Annona muricata and Khaya grandifoliola are ethnomedicinally used for the treatment of malaria and have been experimentally shown to have an anti-plasmodial effect, but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. This study investigated the effect of the ethanol extracts of their leaves on parasitemia, radical scavenging and cytokines in Plasmodium berghei ANKA-infected BALB/c mice. Methods. BALB/c mice were infected with P. berghei and treated with chloroquine, A. muricata or K. grandifoliola extract for 4 days. The percentage of parasitemia and the level of cytokine expression were determined after treatment. Trace element, phytochemical and nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging properties assays were done to study the antioxidant effects of AN and KG in vitro. Results. P. berghei con-sistently increased parasitemia in BALB/c mice. The tested doses (100-, 200-, and 400 mg/kg) of A. muricata and K. grandifoliola attenuated the P. berghei-induced elevation of parasitemia and cytokines (TNF-a, IL-5, and IL-6) in vivo during the experimental period, though not as much as chloroquine. Moreover, both extracts scavenged the DPPH and NO radicals, though A. muricata had more anti-oxidant effect than K. grandifoliola in-vitro. Conclusion. The ethanol extracts of A. muricata and K. grandifoliola reduce parasitemia in P. berghei-treated mice BALB/c by scavenging free radicals and reducing cytokines, though the extracts were not as effective as chloroquine.
- ItemAnti-Malarial Effects of Five Traditional Nigerian Medicinal Plant Extracts on Plasmodium Berghei-Infected Rats(FUDMA Journal of Sciences (FJS), 2021) Ugochukwu Vincent, Igbokwe; Ejike, Daniel Eze; Moses Dele, Adams; Karimah Mohammed, Rabiu; Iliya, Ezekiel; Prisca Ojochogu, Ajeka; Peace Ogechukwu, OkparaThis work focusses on comparative determination of the effects of plant extracts: bitter leaf (BL), sour lime (SL), grape (G), pawpaw (PP) and unripe pineapple (UPA) in female rats induced into malaria with Plasmodiumberghei. Thirty female rats weighing 120-160 g were allotted into five groups (n=6). Group A (negative control) were infected but not treated. Animals in Groups B–E which were infected were given 500 mg/kg body weight (BW) of malanter DS (reference antimalarial drug), 500 mg/kg BW of BL, 250 mg/kg BW each of SL and BL as well as 250 mg/kg BW each of G, PP and UPA. Treatment was done orally once daily for 14 days after which a few related analyses were carried out. Before treatment, parasitemia count of animals in groups B-E was substantially (p<0.05) higher when juxtaposed with group A. AST and ALT activities was substantively (p<0.05) elevated in group B-E when matched with group A. Plasmodium berghei induction notably (p<0.05) lowered white blood cell (WBC) and monocyte (Mono) levels at all groups. After 7 days of treatment, the extracts and drug which appreciably (p<0.05) lowered plasmodium count, RBC, WBC, PCV, Hb, Plat, Lymph, Mono, Granul levels did not meaningfully(p>0.05) affect the activities of ALP, AST and ALT. After 14 days of treatment, the extracts and drug exceptionally (p<0.05) reduced plasmodium count, WBC and ALP activity at all groups. These results give suggestive evidence that the plant extracts either singly or combined, could be a promising anti-plasmodial candidate.
- ItemAnti-obesity effects of Erythrina abyssinica stem bark extract in flies exposed to a high fat diet(www.cell.com/heliyon, 2022-08) Oscar Hilary, Asiimwe; Eddie, Wampande; John, Rubaihayo; Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Hellen, Wambui KinyiBackground: An in vitro assay on Sigmoidin A from Erythrina abyssinica stem bark revealed its potency to inhibit pancreatic lipase. However, studies indicate activity of extract bioactive compounds in combination far exceed the favorable effects of each individual compound due to synergy and additive effects. In this study, we provide information on the effect of E. abyssinica stem bark extract in Drosophila melanogaster. The objective of the study was to determine the safety and effects of E. abyssinica stem bark extract on fly survival, body weight, tri- glycerides, sterol, total protein, and catalase activity of obese male D. melanogaster. Methods: Obesity was induced by exposing D. melanogaster white mutant w 1118 to coconut food for two weeks. Groups 1–3 were fed on coconut food þ fenofibrate at 25 mM, 50 mM, and 75 mM. Groups 4–6 were fed on coconut food þ E. abyssinica stem bark extract at concentrations of 2.5 g/ml, 5.0 g/ml, and 7.5 g/ml. The positive control was exposed to only coconut food while the negative control was on regular food. Fly survival observa- tions were done for 15 days, while acute and chronic effects were done at 30 min and after 48 h respectively following treatment. Body mass, negative geotaxis, reducing power of the extract, triglycerides (TG/TP), sterol, total protein levels, and catalase activity were measured after 10 days of exposure to the experimental diets. Results: Fly survival changes were observed after 10 days and E. abyssinica stem bark extract had the strongest reducing power at 7.5 g/ml extract concentration. E. abyssinica stem bark extract reduced body mass, triglyceride levels (TG/TP), sterol levels, and modulated catalase activity at 7.5 g/ml extract concentration. Though the standard drug fenofibrate had the highest fat accumulation reduction potential, the extract at 7.5 g/ml was much safer in reducing fat accumulation in obese male D. melanogaster than other concentration used. Conclusion: Antioxidants in E. abyssinica stem bark extract are responsible for the observed anti-obesity activity.
- ItemAntimalarial Combination Therapies Increase Gastric Ulcers Through an Imbalance of Basic Antioxidative‑Oxidative Enzymes in Male Wistar Rats.(Kabale University, 2020) Kalange, Muhamudu; Nansunga, Miriam; Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Kasolo, Josephine; Namulema, Jackline; Kasande Atusiimirwe, Jovile; Tiyo Ayikobua, Emanuel; Ssempijja, Fred; Munanura, Edson Ireeta; Matama, Kevin; Semuyaba, Ibrahim; Zirintunda, Gerald Gerald; Okpanachi, Alfred OmachonuObjective: Antimalarials are globally used against plasmodium infections, however, information on the safety of new antimalarial combination therapies on the gastric mucosa is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Artesunate-Amodiaquine and Artemether-Lumefantrine on ulcer induction. Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and major histological changes in male Wistar rats following ulcer induction using Indomethacin were investigated. Gastric ulcers were in four groups; Group I was administered Artesunate, group II received Artesunate- Amodiaquine, group III received Artemether-Lumefantrine, and group IV was a positive control (normal saline). GroupV was the negative control consisting of healthy rats. Results: Antimalarial combination therapies were associated with a high gastric ulcer index than a single antimalarial agent, Artesunate. In addition, levels of MDA were significantly higher in the combination of therapies while levels of GSH were lower in comparison to Artesunate and the negative control. Microscopically, antimalarial combination therapies were associated with severe inflammation and tissue damage than Artesunate in the gastric mucosa showing that antimalarial combination therapies exert their toxic effects through oxidative stress mechanisms, and this leads to cellular damage. Findings in this study demonstrate a need to revisit information on the pharmacodynamics of major circulating antimalarial agents in developing countries. Keywords: Antimalarials, Pharmacodynamics, Antimalarial Agents, Malaria, Developing Countries, Gastric Ulcers.
- ItemAntimicrobial resistance profile among bacteria isolated from patients presenting with wounds at Kabale Regional Referral Hospital, South western Uganda(Research Square, 2020) Andrew, Baguma; Benson, Musinguzi; Kagirita, Atek Atwiine; Joel, BaziraBackground: Bacterial Wound infection and antimicrobial resistance remains a public health challenge. The challenge remains worse due to nosocomial bacterial infection often characterized by multidrug resistance. Infected wounds are often associated with delayed epidermal maturation resulting into prolonged hospitalization. Data on profile of clinical significant bacteria and their respective antibiotic drug resistance in Uganda is still limited. In this study we emphasized on phenotypic characterization of bacteria that cause wound infections at Kabale Regional Hospital (KRRH) and determining the respective antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. Methods: Between June 2016 – to June 2017 a total of 276 Pus specimens were collected from patients at KRRH and analyzed for bacterial infection by standard bacterial cultures techniques. Pus specimens were all from wounds (surgical and non-surgical). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed and reported based on CLSI guidelines. Results One-hundred and ninety-five specimens were positive following bacterial culture (70.7%). Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were the most frequently isolated bacteria. Antibiotic drug resistance testing revealed that 68% of S. aureus isolates were Methicillin resistant. For Escherichia coli isolates, 73% were ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin resistant while resistance to Imipenem was common among Klebsiella sp. Conclusions: Wound infection is mainly caused by gram negative bacteria particularly, Escherichia coli , Klebsiella spp., Proteus spp., and Pseudomonas spp. G positive cocci particularly S. aureus is also an important pathogen among other implicated gram positive cocci. There are high levels of multi - antimicrobial resistance among both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria.
- ItemAnxiety, Anger and Depression Amongst Low-Income Earners in Southwestern Uganda During the COVID-19 Total Lockdown(Kabale University, 2021) Archibong, Victor; Usman, Ibe Michael; Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Osamudiamwen, Eric Aigbogun Jr.; Josiah, Iﬁe; Monima, Ann Lemuel; Ssebuufu, Robinson; Chekwech, Gaudencia; Terkimbi, Swase Dominic; Owoisinke, Okon; Mbiydzenyuy, Ngala Elvis; Adeoye, Azeez; Aruwa, oshua Ojodale; Afodun, Adam Moyosore; Odoma, Saidi; Ssempijja, Fred; Ayikobua, Emmanuel Tiyo; Ayuba, John Tabakwot; Nankya, Viola; Onongha, Comfort; Sussan, Henry; Matama, Kevin; Yusuf, Helen; Nalugo, Halima; MacLeod, Ewan; Welburn, Susan ChristinaBackground: Low-income earners are particularly vulnerable to mental health, consequence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown restrictions, due to a temporary or permanent loss of income and livelihood, coupled with government-enforced measures of social distancing. This study evaluates the mental health status among low-income earners in southwestern Uganda during the ﬁrst total COVID-19 lockdown in Uganda. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken amongst earners whose income falls below the poverty threshold. Two hundred and ﬁfty-three (n = 253) male and female low-income earners between the ages of 18 and 60 years of age were recruited to the study. Modiﬁed generalized anxiety disorder (GAD-7), Spielberger’s State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 (STAXI-2), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) tools as appropriate were used to assess anxiety, anger, and depression respectively among our respondents. Results: Severe anxiety (68.8%) followed by moderate depression (60.5%) and moderate anger (56.9%) were the most common mental health challenges experienced by low-income earners in Bushenyi district. Awareness of mental healthcare increased with the age of respondents in both males and females. A linear relationship was observed with age and depression (r = 0.154, P = 0.014) while positive correlations were observed between anxiety and anger (r = 0.254, P < 0.001); anxiety and depression (r = 0.153, P = 0.015) and anger and depression (r = 0.153, P = 0.015). Conclusion: The study shows the importance of mental health awareness in low resource settings during the current COVID-19 pandemic. Females were identiﬁed as persons at risk to mental depression, while anger was highest amongst young males. Keywords: COVID-19 response, Africa, Socio-economic impacts, Psychosocial, Hunger, Women.
- ItemAssessing Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice of Hand Washing with Soap among Mothers and Caregivers of Children under Five years in Ntungamo District, Uganda(Texila International Journal of Public Health, 2020) Topher, ByamukamaBackground: The study of hand washing practices in Ntungamo district is part of a larger strategy being implemented in different countries to decrease the prevalence of childhood diarrhea, in the frame work of the global public – private partnership for hand washing with soap. Purpose: This study of hand washing practices using soap in Ntungamo district aimed at reducing childhood diarrhea prevalence in the district. It represents a preliminary study designed to collect the information necessary to design appropriate strategies to reduce diarrhea prevalence in under five years of age. Methods: The study used quantitative and qualitative methods to collect data from a representative sample of several supervision areas of Ntungamo district. Results: The practice of hand washing after latrine use among the respondents was very low (52%) compared to washing hands before and after meals (77%). The study also revealed a low use of soap during hand washing where (52%) who washed their hands after contact with feces, only 14.6% used soap. Whereas whose who washed their hands while handling food were77%, but out of 77% only 28% used soap There was no diarrhea reported among respondents that had A-level education and only 20% of those that had post-secondary education reported having diarrhea episodes among the under-five compared to 64% that reported diarrhea among the under-fives for those that had incomplete primary level of education, 57% among the households of functional adult learning graduates and 49% for those that completed primary level of education.
- ItemBee Venom—A Potential Complementary Medicine Candidate for SARS-CoV-2 Infections(Frontiers in Public Health, 2020) Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Simon Peter, MusinguziSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is characterized by severe cytokine storm syndrome following inflammation. SARS-CoV-2 directly interacts with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) receptors in the human body. Complementary therapies that impact on expression of IgE and IgG antibodies, including administration of bee venom (BV), have efficacy in the management of arthritis, and Parkinson’s disease. A recent epidemiological study in China showed that local beekeepers have a level of immunity against SARS-CoV-2 with and without previous exposure to virus. BV anti-inflammatory properties are associated with melittin and phospholipase A2 (PLA2), both of which show activity against enveloped and non-enveloped viruses, including H1N1 and HIV, with activity mediated through antagonist activity against interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, interferon-g (IFN-g), and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a). Melittin is associated with the underexpression of proinflammatory cytokines, including nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2), and protein kinase Akt. BV therapy also involves group III secretory phospholipase A2 in the management of respiratory and neurological diseases. BV activation of the cellular and humoral immune systems should be explored for the application of complementary medicine for the management of SARS-CoV-2 infections. BV “vaccination” is used to immunize against cytomegalovirus and can suppress metastases through the PLA2 and phosphatidylinositol-(3,4)-bisphosphate pathways. That BV shows efficacy for HIV and H1NI offers opportunity as a candidate for complementary therapy for protection against SARS-CoV-2.
- ItemBehavioural Response To Self-Medication Practice Before and During Covid-19 Pandemic in Western Uganda(Patient Preference and Adherence, 2022) Samuel Sunday, Dare; Ejike, Daniel Eze; Isaac, Echoru; Ibe Michael, Usman; Fred, Ssempijja; Edmund Eriya, Bukenya; Robinson, SsebuufuBackground: Self-medication has become a serious public health problem posing great risks, especially with the increasing number of cases of COVID-19 disease globally and in Uganda. This may be partly because of the absence of a recognized treatment for the disease, however, the differing prevalence and nature from country to country may influence human behavioral responses. Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the behavioral response to self-medication practices during the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown in comparison to the pre-COVID period in Western Uganda. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted from June to August 2020 in western Uganda using online Google forms and printed questionnaires to investigate the level of self-medication practice before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. This included 280 participants, aged 18 and above who consented to participate in the study. Participants were selected using a convenience sampling technique, and sampling was done by sending a structured online questionnaire via Google forms and printed questionnaires to participants who did not use the online Google forms. Results: Respondents that knew about self-medication were 97% of the 272 participants. Those that are aware of self-medication, have heard about it either through different avenues. Respondents who practiced self-medication before the COVID-19 pandemic were 239 (88%); those who practiced self-medication during the COVID-19 pandemic were 156 (57%); those that did not were 115 (43%). There was a statistically significant decrease in the number of respondents who practice self-medication during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown compared to the practice before the pandemic lockdown. p < 0.05 at 95% confidence interval (OR = 5.39, 95% CI = 3.48, 8.32). Conclusion: Our investigation showed adequate knowledge of self-medication and a high level of self-medication practice with a decrease in self-medication practices during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown compared to the practice before the lockdown
- ItemBiological Properties, Bioactive Constituents, and Pharmacokinetics of Some Capsicum spp. and Capsaicinoids(International Journal of Molecular Science, 2020-07-22) Gaber, El-Saber Batiha; Ali, Alqahtani; Oluwafemi, Adeleke Ojo; Hazem M., Shaheen; Lamiaa, Wasef; Mahmoud, Elzeiny; Mahmoud, Ismail; Mahmoud, Shalaby; Toshihiro, Murata; Adrian, Zaragoza-Bastida; Nallely, Rivero-Perez; Amany, Magdy Beshbishy; Keneth, Iceland Kasozi; Philippe, Jeandet; and Helal F., HettaPepper originated from the Capsicum genus, which is recognized as one of the most predominant and globally distributed genera of the Solanaceae family. It is a diverse genus, consisting of more than 31 different species including five domesticated species, Capsicum baccatum, C. annuum, C. pubescen, C. frutescens, and C. chinense. Pepper is the most widely used spice in the world and is highly valued due to its pungency and unique flavor. Pepper is a good source of provitamin A; vitamins E and C; carotenoids; and phenolic compounds such as capsaicinoids, luteolin, and quercetin. All of these compounds are associated with their antioxidant as well as other biological activities. Interestingly, Capsicum fruits have been used as food additives in the treatment of toothache, parasitic infections, coughs, wound healing, sore throat, and rheumatism. Moreover, it possesses antimicrobial, antiseptic, anticancer, counterirritant, appetite stimulator, antioxidant, and immunomodulator activities. Capsaicin and Capsicum creams are accessible in numerous ways and have been utilized in HIV-linked neuropathy and intractable pain.
- ItemBirthing experience and quality of life after vacuum delivery and second-stage caesarean section: a prospective cohort study in Uganda(Tropical Medicine and International Health, 2018) Barbara, Nolens; Thomas, van den Akker; John, Lule; Sulphine, Twinomuhangi; Roosmalen, Jos van; Josaphat, Byamugishaobjective To assess perceptions of women undergoing vacuum extraction or second-stage caesarean section (SSCS) in a tertiary referral hospital in sub-Saharan Africa. methods Prospective cohort study, with six-month follow-up, of women who gave birth to a term singleton in cephalic presentation by vacuum extraction (n = 289) or SSCS (n = 357) between 25 November 2014, to 8 July 2015, in Mulago Hospital, Uganda. Excluded were women who had failed vacuum extraction, severe birth complications and those whose babies had died. Outcome measures were birthing experience satisfaction, physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) of the SF-12 quality-of-life questionnaire, pain scores and dyspareunia. results One day after vacuum extraction, 63.7% (181/284) of women were feeling well vs. 48.1% (167/347) after SSCS (OR 1.89; 95%CI 1.37–2.61) and mean pain sores were 2.70 vs. 3.87 (P < 0.001). In both groups, >90% of women were satisfied with their birthing experience. At six weeks, in vacuum extraction vs. SSCS, mean pain sores were 0.40 vs. 0.89 (P < 0.001); mean PCS was 48.67 vs. 44.03 (P < 0.001); mean MCS was 52.80 vs. 51.23 (P = 0.203); 40% (70/175) vs. 28.3% (70/247) of women had resumed sexual intercourse (OR 1.69; 95%CI 1.12–2.54) and 21.4% (15/70) vs. 28.6% (20/70) had dyspareunia (OR 0.68; 95%CI 0.32–1.47). No differences were found at six months after birth. conclusion One day and six weeks after birth, outcomes were better in women who had vacuum extraction. At six months, outcomes were similar. To promote quick recovery, vacuum extraction should be the first intervention considered in the second stage of labour.
- ItemBorassus aethiopum (Mart.) ethanol fruit extract reverses alloxan-treatment alterations in experimental animals(Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism 15 (2022) 429–44, 2022) Moses Dele, Adams; Ejike, Daniel EzeBACKGROUND: Borassus aethiopum fruit is claimed to be used for the management of diabetes without scientific validation. OBJECTIVE: This study seeks to evaluate the antihyperglycaemic activity of ethanol fruit extract of Borassus aethiopum in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: 36 rats were placed in six groups (i-vi) (n = 6). Animals in group i (standard) were given 0.4 mls of distilled water (d.w) whereas the ones assigned to group ii, iii, iv, v and vi which were induced into diabetes (by intake of 140 mg/kg body weight [b.w] of alloxan) were also respectively given d.w, 50 mg/kg b.w of metformin, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg b.w of ethanol fruit extract of Borassus aethiopum, once daily for 14 days. RESULTS: Flavonoid found in the extract (24.04 mg/ml) occurred the most with phenolic (0.35 mg/ml) being the least. While alloxan substantially (p < 0.05) increased the levels of some biological molecules and enzyme activity, it lowered those of others. The extract however significantly (p < 0.05) reversed all the alloxan-induced alterations, with the extract at 100 mg/kg b.w producing figures that compared (p > 0.05) well with those of the d.w treated non-diabetic animals and metformin-treated diabetic animals. The extract also renewed the wholeness of histological damage in the pancreas. CONCLUSION: The bioactive agents of B. aethiopum presented antihyperglycaemic property by preventing diabetes via reversal of alloxan-treatment alterations in the animals
- ItemCalcium and s100a1 Protein Balance in the brain– Heart axis in Diabetic Male Wistar Rats.(2020) Keneth Iceland, Kasozi,; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy; Ninsiima, Herbert Izo; Kasolo, Josephine; Matama, Kevin; Safiriyu, Abass Alao; Owembabazi, Elna; Ssempijja, Fred; Okpanachi, Alfred Omachonu; Valladares, Miriela BetancourtCalcium deregulation in diabetes mellitus (DM) is central to the brain–heart axis pathology. This has led to the use of medical plants in complementary medicine such as Amaranthus hypochondriacus (GA). The objective of the study was to establish the effects of grain amaranth feed supplementation on calcium, s100al
- ItemCalcium and s100a1 Protein Balance in the brain– Heart axis in Diabetic Male Wistar Rats.(Kabale University, 2021) Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy; Ninsiima, Herbert Izo; Kasolo, Josephine; Matama, Kevin; Safiriyu, Abass Alao; Owembabazi, Elna; Ssempijja, Fred; Okpanachi, Alfred Omachonu; Valladares, Miriela BetancourtObjectives: Calcium deregulation in diabetes mellitus (DM) is central to the brain–heart axis pathology. This has led to the use of medical plants in complementary medicine such as Amaranthus hypochondriacus (GA). The objective of the study was to establish the effects of grain amaranth feed supplementation on calcium, s100al protein and antioxidant levels on the brain–heart axis in diabetic male Wistar rats. Methods: The study involved six groups (n=5) with DM being induced in 20 rats. To the diabetic rats, Group I received mixtard®, Group II was positive control, Groups III and IV received GA feed supplementation at 25 and 50%. In the nondiabetic rats (n=10), Group V received 50% grain amaranth while Group VI was the negative control. The brain and heart tissues were harvested after five weeks and processed using standard methods. Results: Grain amaranth feed supplementation led to improved calcium levels in DM as compared to the positive control. This also led to increased s100a1, antioxidant levels in the brain–heart axis during DM. This then protected the tissues against oxidative damage, thus preserving tissue function and structure. Conclusions: Grain amaranth’s actions on calcium signaling subsequently affected s100a1 protein levels, leading to improved tissue function in diabetes. Keywords: Calcium, T2DM, Ethnomedicine, Grain Amaranth.
- ItemCarpolobia lutea methanol root extract reinstates androgenesis and testicular function in cadmium- challenged rats(Journal of Physiology and Pathophysiology, 2019) Ejike, Daniel Eze; Okpa, Precious Nwaka; Igbokwe, Ugochukwu Vincent; Moses, Dele Adams; Karimah, Mohammed Rabiu; Ayikobua, Emmanuel TiyoCadmium produces a wide range of biological dysfunctions in human and laboratory animals where it chiefly affects the testes, whereas, Carpolobia lutea has been known to have antioxidant benefits. This study was intended to investigate the effects of Carpolobia lutea root extracts on testicular hormone function in cadmium-challenged male rats. 48 male Wistar rats (170-190 g) were divided into six groups, each containing eight rats. Experimental animals in control (Group 1) were given 0.2ml/kg body weight (BW) of 10% tween 80; Group two were administered 1mg/kg BW of cadmium (i.p); Group 3 were given 1mg/kg BW of cadmium (i.p) + 100mg/kg BW extract; Group four took 1mg/kg BW of cadmium (i.p) + 200mg/kg BW extract while Group five and six got 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg BW extract respectively. The administration of vehicle and extract was conducted orally for six weeks. Testicular activity of 17 beta- hydrosteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) and serum testosterone, luteinizing and follicle stimulating hormone (LH, FSH) levels were evaluated. Findings indicated that cadmium statistically (p<0.05) lowered testicular 17β-HSD activity and serum testosterone, LH and FSH levels when compared with those of the control group animals. However, Carpolobia lutea and its co-administration notably (p<0.05) elevated the activity of testicular 17β-HSD and levels of serum testosterone, LH and FSH. The study suggests that Carpolobia lutea extract plays a protective function in ameliorating testicular damage caused by cadmium in rats. This is probably due to the extract’s potential in the management of testicular dysfunction and fecundity in animals.