Browsing by Author "Andrew, Tamale"
Now showing 1 - 7 of 7
Results Per Page
- ItemAn analysis of heavy metals contamination and estimating the daily intakes of vegetables from Uganda(Toxicology Research and Application, 2021) Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Eric Oloya, Otim; Herbert Izo, Ninsiima; Gerald, Zirintunda; Andrew, Tamale; Justin, Ekou; Grace Henry, Musoke; Robert, Muyinda; Kevin, Matama; Regan, Mujinya; Henry, Matovu; Fred, Ssempijja; Ejike, Daniel Eze; Mauryn, Atino; Bede, Udechukwu; Ronald, Kayima; Patrick, Etiang; Emmanuel Tiyo, Ayikobua; Stellamaris, Kembabazi; Ibe Michael, Usman; Sheu Oluwadare, Sulaiman; Phyllis Candy, Natabo; Grace Nambatya, Kyeyune; Gaber El-Saber, Batiha; Ochan, OtimEnvironmental contamination with elevated levels of copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr 6þ), cadmium (Cd), and nickel (Ni)—all states of which are found in Uganda—raises health risk to the public. Pb, Cr 6þ, Cd, and Ni for instance are generally considered nonessential to cellular functions, notwithstanding the importance of the oxidative state of the metals in bioavailability. As such, we aimed in this study (i) to evaluate heavy metal concentrations in four vegetables from a typical open-air market in Uganda, (ii) to assess the safety of consuming these vegetables against the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended limits of heavy metals consumption, and (iii) to formulate a model of estimated daily intake (EDI) among consumers in the country. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in five georeferenced markets of Bushenyi district in January 2020. Amaranthus, cabbages, scarlet eggplants, and tomatoes were collected from open markets, processed, and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Modeled EDI, principal component (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were conducted to identify relationships in the samples. Results: The levels of essential elements in the four vegetables were found to fall from Co > Cu > Fe > Zn. Those of non-essential metals were significantly higher and followed the pattern Cd > Cr > Pb > Ni. The highest EDI values were those of Cu in scarlet eggplants, Zn in amaranthus, Fe in amaranthus, Co in amaranthus, Pb in cabbages, total Cr in scarlet eggplant, Cd in cabbages and tomatoes, and Ni in cabbages. In comparison to international limits, EDIs for Zn, Cu, Co and Fe were low while Ni in cabbages were high. PCA showed high variations in scarlet eggplant and amaranthus. The study vegetables were found to be related with each other, not according to the location of the markets from where they were obtained, but according to their species by CA. Conclusion: The presence of non-essential elements above WHO limits raises policy challenges for the consumption and marketing of vegetables in the study area. Furthermore, low EDIs of essential elements in the vegetables create demand for nutritious foods to promote healthy communities
- ItemConsumption of Raw Herbal Medicines Is Associated with Major Public Health Risks amongst Ugandans(Journal of Environmental and Public Health, 2020-06-03) Fred, Ssempijja; Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Ejike, Daniel Eze; Andrew, Tamale; Sylvia Anurika, Ewuzie; Kevin, Matama; Justine, Ekou; Paul, Bogere; Regan, Mujinya; Grace Henry, Musoke; Jovile Kasande, Atusiimirwe; Gerald, Zirintunda; Muhamudu, Kalange; Joel, Lyada; Ritah, Kiconco; Theophilus, Pius; Christopher, Nandala; Roland Mugisha, Kamugisha; Yunusu, Hamira; Edgar Mario, Fernandez; Simon Peter, MusinguziCommunity consumption of herbal plants in developing countries is a common practice, however, scarcity of information on their physiochemical composition is a major public health concern. In Uganda, Vernonia amygdalina is of interest in rural communities due to its therapeutical action on both bacterial and protozoal parasites, however no studies have been conducted to assess the heavy metal concentrations in traditional plants used in alternative medicine. +e aim of the study was to establish concentrations of heavy metals in Vernonia amygdalina, model the estimated daily intake (EDI), and assess both the non- cancer-related health risk using the target hazard quotient (THQ), and the risk related to cancer through the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) for the Ugandan population. Methods. Leaves of Vernonia amygdalina were collected from 20 georeferenced villages and processed into powder in the laboratory using standard methods. +ese were then analyzed in the laboratory using an atomic absorption spectrometer for lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), iron (Fe), cadmium (Cd), and nickel (Ni). Concentrations were compared against the World Health Organization (WHO) limits. +e EDI, THQ, and ILCR were modelled and significance was measured at 95% confidence. Results. +e study showed that mean ± SEM concentrations of heavy metals were highest in the order of Cr, 121.8 ± 4.291 ppm > Ni, 84.09 ± 2.725 ppm > Zn, 53.87 ± 2.277 ppm > Pb, Hindawi Journal of Environmental and Public Health Volume 2020, Article ID 8516105, 10 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/8516105 40.61 ± 3.891 ppm > Cu, 28.75 ± 2.202 ppm > Fe, 14.15 ± 0.7271 ppm > Co, 7.923 ± 0.7674 ppm > Cd, 0.1163 ± 0.005714 ppm. Concentrations of Pb, Cr, Zn, Co, and Ni were significantly higher than the WHO limits. +e EDI was significantly higher in children than in adults, demonstrating an increased risk of toxicity in children. +e THQ and ILCR were over 1000 times higher in all Ugandans, demonstrating the undesirable health risks following oral consumption of Vernonia amygdalina due to very high Cr and Ni toxicities, respectively. Conclusion. Consumption of raw Vernonia amygdalina was associated with a high carcinogenic risk, demonstrating a need to enact policies to promote physiochemical screening of herbal medicines used in developing countries against toxic compounds
- ItemContamination Potentials of Household Water Handling and Storage Practices in Kirundo Subcounty, Kisoro District, Uganda(Hindawi Journal of Environmental and Public Health, 2019) Alexander, Agensi; Julius, Tibyangye; Andrew, Tamale; Ezera, Agwu; Christine, AmongiWaterborne diseases constitute a major public health burden in developing and underdeveloped countries. Consumption of contaminated water causes health risk to the public, and the situation is alarming in rural areas. *e objective of this study was to assess the contamination potentials of different house water handling and storage practices in the Kirundo subcounty, Kisoro District, Uganda. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional and descriptive study in which 344 water samples were collected randomly and analysed for bacteriological contamination, total coliforms (TCs) and Escherichia coli per 100 ml, using the Most Probable Number (MPN) technique and reported in terms of CFU/100 ml. Results. *e 43.2% samples from unprotected water sources had total coliforms and 34.1% had Escherichia coli. In analysed household drinking water, 25% had total coliforms and 8.7% had Escherichia coli. Most drinking water sources were found to have coliform counts above the recommended national and international guidelines. *ere was a statistically significant difference among water sources with respect to total coliforms and Escherichia coli (p < 0.05). Conclusion. *e overall results indicated that there is a strong linkage between microbiological water quality and water source sanitation; hence, the protected water source was safer than unprotected water sources. For the unprotected water sources, protection strategies as well as monitoring are recommended for this community.
- ItemFood Safety Analysis of Milk and Beef in Southwestern Uganda(Journal of Environmental and Public Health, 2018) Phyllis Candy, Natabo; Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Sarah, Namubiru; Dickson Stuart, Tayebwa; Andrew, Tamale; Pwaveno H., BamaiyiInorganic pollutants in milk and beef are of major public health concern; however, information in Africa is still limited due to low food safety monitoring practices. In this study, we established levels of lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and iron (Fe) in milk and beef and obtained the estimated daily intake (EDI) and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) as measures of risk to the Ugandan population. Materials and Methods. +is was a cross-sectional study in which a total of 40 samples of milk and beef were collected from Bushenyi district in southwestern Uganda. Samples were analyzed by atomic absorbance spectrophotometer, and the EDI and ILCR were computed using the US EPA reference values. Results and Discussion. Heavy metal concentrations were highest in the order of Zn > Fe > Pb > Cu in milk samples, while in beef samples, concentrations were highest in the order of Zn > Pb > Fe > Cu and no Cd was detected. Furthermore, beef had significantly higher (P < 0.05) Pb and Fe concentrations than milk. +e EDI was highest in children, and this was followed by very high ILCR levels, showing that milk and beef are not safe for children in Uganda. Bearing in mind that a high HI was shown, beef and milk from these regions are not recommended for consumption especially by children although more studies remain to be conducted. Conclusion. Heavy metals in milk and beef of Uganda may predispose the indigenous community to cancer and other health-related illnesses, showing a need for improved food safety screening to promote food safety
- ItemLow concentrations of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ( Yoba®) are safe in male Drosophila melanogaster(BMC Res Notes, 2019) Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Aisha, Bukenya; Ejike, Daniel Eze; Josephine, Kasolo; Dickson Stuart, Tayebwa; Fred, Ssempijja; Joy, Suubo; Andrew, Tamale; Isaac, Echoru; Ibrahim, Ntulume; Sarah, Kemuma Onkoba; Lisa Nkatha, Micheni; Emmanuel Tiyo, Ayikobua; Oscar Hilary, Asiimwe; Muhamudu, KalangeObjective: The purpose of the study was to generate information on the safety of probiotics, thus the study objectives were to evaluate the effects of Yoba ® on basic physiochemical properties. The study assessed male w1118 Drosophila melanogaster which were provided food supplemented with Yoba ® at 1%, 3%, 6%, and 12% on motor function, total protein, catalase activity, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and lifespan. Results: Yoba® at high concentration (≥ 6%) increased locomotor activity in Drosophila melanogaster, however, total protein, catalase, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity were significantly higher at 1% Yoba ® compared to 3%, 6%, and 12% Yoba ®. Yoba consumed at 1% was associated with greater physiological benefits in Drosophila melanogaster. Findings in the study offer a rationale for the consumption of Yoba ® at 1% in humans as is currently being promoted by the Yoba for Life consortium, however, high concentrations of Yoba ® would disrupt physiological function as shown by this study.
- ItemLow concentrations of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ( Yoba®) are safe in male Drosophila melanogaster(Research Note, 2019) Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Aisha, Bukenya; Ejike, Daniel Eze; Josephine, Kasolo; Dickson Stuart, Tayebwa; Fred, Ssempijja; Joy, Suubo; Andrew, Tamale; Isaac, Echoru; Ibrahim, Ntulume; Sarah Kemuma, Onkoba; Lisa Nkatha, Micheni; Emmanuel Tiyo, Ayikobua; Oscar Hilary, Asiimwe; Muhamudu, KalangeObjective: The purpose of the study was to generate information on the safety of probiotics, thus the study objectives were to evaluate the effects of Yoba ® on basic physiochemical properties. The study assessed male w1118 Drosophila melanogaster which were provided food supplemented with Yoba ® at 1%, 3%, 6%, and 12% on motor function, total protein, catalase activity, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and lifespan. Results: Yoba® at high concentration (≥ 6%) increased locomotor activity in Drosophila melanogaster, however, total protein, catalase, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity were significantly higher at 1% Yoba ® compared to 3%, 6%, and 12% Yoba ®. Yoba consumed at 1% was associated with greater physiological benefits in Drosophila melanogaster. Findings in the study offer a rationale for the consumption of Yoba ® at 1% in humans as is currently being promoted by the Yoba for Life consortium, however, high concentrations of Yoba ® would disrupt physiological function as shown by this study.
- ItemSafety of Drinking Water from Primary Water Sources and Implications for the General Public in Uganda(Hindawi, 2019-03-25) Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Sarah, Namubiru; Roland, Kamugisha; Ejike, Daniel Eze; Fred, Ssempijja; Alfred, Omachonu Okpanachi; Hellen, Wambui Kinyi,; Jovile Kasande, Atusiimirwe; Dickson Stuart, Tayebwa; Joy, Suubo; Edgar Mario, Fernandez; Nathan, Nshakira; Andrew, Tamale,ere is scarcity of information about the quality and safety of drinking water in Africa. Without such vital information, sustainable development goal number 6 which promotes availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation remains elusive especially in developing countries. ,e study aimed at determining concentrations of inorganic compounds, estimated daily intake (EDI), target hazard quotient (THQ), hazard index (HI), incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR), and identify safe drinking water source sources in Southwestern Uganda. Methods. ,is was an observational study in which 40 drinking water samples were collected from georeferenced boreholes, springs, open wells, bottled, and taps within Bushenyi district of Southwestern Uganda. Water samples were analyzed for copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr) levels using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Water safety measures (EDI, HI, and ILCR) were established for each water source and compared with local and international water permissible standards for each analyte. A spatial map was drawn using qGIS®, and analysis of quantitative data was done using MS Excel 2013 at 95% significance. Results. Heavy metals were present in the following order: 11.276 ppm> 4.4623ppm > 0.81ppm > 0.612ppm > 0.161 ppm for Fe, Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd, respectively, while Cr was not detected. Fe was the primary water heavy metal in the order of open well > borehole > tap > spring > bottled water. ,is was followed by Zn levels in the order of tap > bottled > spring > borehole > open well. All compounds were within international water safety standards except Pb. Hence, there is need for the government of Uganda to establish water filtration systems, particularly for Pb to improve the quality of water for the general public.,eEDI was similar (P > 0.05) for water consumed from spring, bottled, and tap sources for Fe and Zn levels. Similarly, no differences were found in the EDI for children and adults (P > 0.05). Furthermore, the HI showed an absence of noncarcinogenic risk associated (HI < 1), although the ILCR was higher in adults than children (P < 0.05) due to high Cd concentrations. Conclusion. ,e current identified Fe is a major heavy metal in drinking water of Uganda, and boreholes were the major safest sources of drinking water identified in this study.