Food Safety Analysis of Milk and Beef in Southwestern Uganda

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Journal of Environmental and Public Health


Inorganic pollutants in milk and beef are of major public health concern; however, information in Africa is still limited due to low food safety monitoring practices. In this study, we established levels of lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and iron (Fe) in milk and beef and obtained the estimated daily intake (EDI) and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) as measures of risk to the Ugandan population. Materials and Methods. +is was a cross-sectional study in which a total of 40 samples of milk and beef were collected from Bushenyi district in southwestern Uganda. Samples were analyzed by atomic absorbance spectrophotometer, and the EDI and ILCR were computed using the US EPA reference values. Results and Discussion. Heavy metal concentrations were highest in the order of Zn > Fe > Pb > Cu in milk samples, while in beef samples, concentrations were highest in the order of Zn > Pb > Fe > Cu and no Cd was detected. Furthermore, beef had significantly higher (P < 0.05) Pb and Fe concentrations than milk. +e EDI was highest in children, and this was followed by very high ILCR levels, showing that milk and beef are not safe for children in Uganda. Bearing in mind that a high HI was shown, beef and milk from these regions are not recommended for consumption especially by children although more studies remain to be conducted. Conclusion. Heavy metals in milk and beef of Uganda may predispose the indigenous community to cancer and other health-related illnesses, showing a need for improved food safety screening to promote food safety



Food Safety, Analysis of Milk, Beef in Southwestern Uganda