Browsing Research Articles by Author "Abdelhamid, Mahmoud"
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- ItemEmerging Anthelmintic Resistance in Poultry: Can Ethnopharmacological Approaches Offer a Solution?(Kabale University, 2022) Zirintunda, Gerald; Biryomumaisho, Savino; Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Batiha, Gaber El-Saber; Kateregga, John; Vudriko, Patrick; Nalule, Sarah; Olila, Deogracious; Mariam Kajoba, Mariam; Matama, Kevin; Kwizera, Mercy Rukundo; Ghoneim, Mohammed M.; Abdelhamid, Mahmoud; Alshehri, Sultan; Abdelgawad, Mohamed A.; Acai-Okwee, James; Zaghlool, Sameh S.Limited pharmacological studies have been conducted on plant species used against poultry helminths. The objective of this study was to provide a basis for plant based anthelmintics as possible alternatives against poultry anthelmintic resistance. The study justiﬁed the need for alternative anthelmintics. The study places emphasis on the increasing anthelmintic resistance, mechanism of resistance, and preparational protocols for plant anthelmintics and their associated mechanism of action. Pharmaceutical studies on plants as alternative therapies for the control of helminthparasites have not been fully explored especially in several developing countries. Plants from a broad range of species produce a wide variety of compounds that are potential anthelmintics candidates. Important phenolic acids have been found in Brassica rapa L. and Terminalia avicenniodes Guill. and Perri that affect the cell signaling pathways and gene expression. Benzo (c) phenanthridine and isoquinoline alkaloids are neurotoxic to helminths. Steroidal saponins (polyphyllin D and dioscin) interact with helminthic mitochondrial activity, alter cell membrane permeability, vacuolation and membrane damage. Benzyl isothiocyanate glucosinolates interfere with DNA replication and protein expression, while isoﬂavones from Acacia oxyphylla cause helminth ﬂaccid paralysis, inhibit energy generation, and affect calcium utilization. Condensed tannins have been shown to cause the death of nematodes and paralysis leading to expulsion from the gastro-intestinal tract. Flavonoids from Chenopodium album L and Mangifera indica L act through the action of phosphodiesterase and Ca2+-ATPase, and ﬂavonoids and tannins have been shown to act synergistically and are complementary to praziquantel. Artemisinins from Artemisia cina O. Berg are known to disrupt mitochondrial ATP production. Terpenoids from Cucurbita moschata L disrupt neurotransmission leading to paralysis as well as disruption of egg hatching. Yeast particle encapsulated terpenes are effective for the control of albendazole-resistant helminths. Keywords: Synthetic, Toxicity, Safety, Medicine, Ethnoveterinary, Parasites, Nematodes, Plant.
- ItemEpidemiology of Trypanosomiasis in Wildlife—Implications for Humans at the Wildlife Interface in Africa(Kabale University, 2021) Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Zirintunda, Gerald; Ssempijja, Fred; Buyinza, Bridget; Alzahrani, Khalid J.; Matama, Kevin; Nakimbugwe, Helen N.; Alkazmi, Luay; Onanyang, David; Bogere, Paul; Ochieng, Juma John; Islam, Saher; Matovu, Wycliff; Nalumenya, David Paul; Batiha, Gaber El-Saber; Osuwat, Lawrence Obado; Abdelhamid, Mahmoud; Shen, Tianren; Omadang, Leonard; Welburn, Susan ChristinaWhile both human and animal trypanosomiasis continue to present as major human and animal public health constraints globally, detailed analyses of trypanosome wildlife reservoir hosts remain sparse. African animal trypanosomiasis (AAT) affects both livestock and wildlife carrying a signiﬁcant risk of spillover and cross-transmission of species and strains between populations. Increased human activity together with pressure on land resources is increasing wildlife–livestock–human infections. Increasing proximity between human settlements and grazing lands to wildlife reserves and game parks only serves to exacerbate zoonotic risk. Communities living and maintaining livestock on the fringes of wildlife-rich ecosystems require to have in place methods of vector control for prevention of AAT transmission and for the treatment of their livestock. Major Trypanosoma spp. include Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, and Trypanosoma cruzi, pathogenic for humans, and Trypanosoma vivax, Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma evansi, Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Trypanosoma dionisii, Trypanosoma thomasbancrofti, Trypanosma elephantis, Trypanosoma vegrandis, Trypanosoma copemani, Trypanosoma irwini, Trypanosoma copemani, Trypanosoma gilletti, Trypanosoma theileri, Trypanosoma godfreyi, Trypansoma simiae, and Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) pestanai. Wildlife hosts for the trypansomatidae include subfamilies of Bovinae, Suidae, Pantherinae, Equidae, Alcephinae, Cercopithecinae, Crocodilinae, Pteropodidae, Peramelidae, Sigmodontidae, and Meliphagidae. Wildlife species are generally considered tolerant to trypanosome infection following centuries of coexistence of vectors and wildlife hosts. Tolerance is inﬂuenced by age, sex, species, and physiological condition and parasite challenge. Cyclic transmission through Glossina species occurs for T. congolense, T. simiae, T. vivax, T. brucei, and T. b. rhodesiense, T. b. gambiense, and within Reduviid bugs for T. cruzi. T. evansi is mechanically transmitted, and T. vixax is also commonly transmitted by biting ﬂies including tsetse. Wildlife animal species serve as long-term reservoirs of infection, but the delicate acquired balance between trypanotolerance and trypanosome challenge can be disrupted by an increase in challenge and/or the introduction of new more virulent species into the ecosystem. There is a need to protect wildlife, animal, and human populations from the infectious consequences of encroachment to preserve and protect these populations. In this review, we explore the ecology and epidemiology of Trypanosoma spp. in wildlife. Keywords: Trypanosomes, wildlife, Human-wildlife Interactions, Wildlife-Livestock Interactions, Human African Trypanosomiasis, Sleeping Sickness, Trypanosoma brucei Gambiense, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense.