Quantification of Lead and Zinc in Ground, Surface and Tap Drinking Water Sources in Kabale Municipality.

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Kabale University


Metal contamination in water is the major component in determination of water quality. Water is a dynamic source, essential for all aspects of human and ecosystem for existence and health. Apparently drinking water sources are affected by anthropogenic activities. The objective of this study was to detect zinc and lead concentrations in tap, ground and surface water in Kabale municipality. Two samples were collected from each water source. The samples were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and the results obtained were compared alongside with guidelines for safe drinking water such as world health organization. The results obtained showed the highest concentration of both lead and zinc in surface (river) water and lowest concentrations in spring water. In surface(river)water, the concentrations of lead were( 0.0063mg/l)and( 0.0073mg/l )and that of zinc were(0.0075mg/l ) and (0.0091mg/l). The disposal of municipal wastes, discharge from factories, car washing and use of agrochemicals are the major causes of these metals in such water bodies. Tap water of study area contained concentrations of (0.0037mg/l) and (0.005 lmg/l) zinc while lead had a concentrations of (0.0039mg/l) and (0.0043mg/l). The presence of lead and zinc in tap water is due to corrosion of galvanized and plumbing materials used in water supply. Spring water. recorded the lowest concentration of both lead and zinc compared to other water sources. The concentrations of lead were (0.0012mg/l) and (0.0004mg/l) while zinc concentrations were found to be (0.0022mg/l) to (0.0037mg/l). The accumulation of lead and zinc in spring water is as result of geogenic activities such as weathering actions and influence from anthropogenic activities. In comparison with accepted values for safe drinking water, the outcome of the study indicates that the pollution is minimal since the obtained results are within the accepted limits. However, there is a need for further studies on water treatment, and proper management of environment as well as wastes from different sources to minimize water pollution by these metals.



Quantification, Lead, Zinc, Ground Surface, Tap Drinking Water, Sources, Kabale Municipality


Mongusho, Ivan (2021). Quantification of Lead and Zinc in Ground, Surface and Tap Drinking Water Sources in Kabale Municipality. Kabale: Kabale University.