Prospective cohort study comparing outcomes between vacuum extraction and second-stage cesarean delivery at a Ugandan tertiary referral hospital


Objective: To compare maternal and perinatal outcomes between vacuum extraction and second-stage cesarean delivery (SSCD). Methods: The present observational cohort study was conducted among women with term vertex singleton pregnancies who underwent vacuum extraction or SSCD at Mulago National Referral Hospital, Kampala, Uganda, between November 25, 2014, and July 8, 2015. Severe maternal outcomes (mortality, uterine rupture, hysterectomy, re-laparotomy) and perinatal outcomes (mortality, trauma, low Apgar score, convulsions) were compared between initial delivery mode. Results: Among 13 152 deliveries, 358 women who underwent vacuum extraction and 425 women who underwent SSCD were enrolled in the study. No maternal deaths occurred after vacuum extraction versus five deaths from complications of SSCD. Vacuum extraction was associated with less severe maternal outcomes compared with SSCD (3 [0.8%] vs 18 [4.2%]; adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.07–0.84). Fetal death during the decision-to-delivery interval was also less common in the vacuum extraction group (3 [0.9%] vs 18 [4.4%]; aOR 0.24, 95% CI 0.07–0.84); however, the perinatal mortality rate did not differ between the vacuum extraction and SSCD groups (29 [8.4%] vs 45 [11.0%], respectively; aOR 0.83, 95% CI 0.49–1.41). One infant in each group exhibited neurodevelopmental anomalies at 6 months. Conclusion: Vacuum extraction had better maternal outcomes and equivalent perinatal outcomes compared with SSCD. These findings encourage re-introduction of vacuum extraction.



Cesarean delivery; Instrumental delivery; Maternal morbidity; Maternal mortality; Neonatal morbidity; Perinatal mortality; Vacuum extraction; Ventouse delivery