Browsing by Author "Turyasingura, Benson"
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- ItemA literature review of climate-smart landscapes as a tool in soil- water management in Sub-Saharan Africa(International Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Technovation, 2023-02-08) Turyasingura, Benson; Tumwesigye, Wycliffe; Atuhaire, Abraham; Tumushabe, Jennifer Turyatemba; Akatwijuka, , RogersWorldwide, information is needed about the social landscape management as there is no known studies that have documented how climate-smart landscape approaches improve soil and water status. In Sub-Saharan Africa, effective social landscape governance necessitates a certain amount of social capital, including trust and agreed-upon standards. Climate-smart landscapes are key to successful soil and water management but little effort have been made to critically improve effective soil and water resources. The study was guided by the specific objectives, which include examining equitable climate-smart landscapes and finding out the major challenges facing the implementation of climate-smart landscapes. Using "landscape governance" AND "climate smart landscape," 31 papers (31) were obtained from the Web of Science (WOS) and twenty-nine (27) from the Scopus databases using search engines from (1992-2022). On equitable climate-smart landscapes, it was found that multi-stakeholder participation in landscape management is an iterative and changing process that can assist in addressing and resolving disputes as well as facilitating fair negotiation procedures for underrepresented and minority groups. Proper planning and the implementation of a comprehensive planning framework that links various planning activities and decision-making processes are required for landscape approaches to be successful. The major challenges included policies and institutions, financial difficulties in the conservation of natural resources, and socio-economic issues. The novelty from this study is to inform policy makers on climate-smart landscape approaches to ease soil and water management.
- ItemClassifying the Involvement of Men and Women in Climate Smart Agricultural Practices in Kayonza Sub-county(International Journal of Energy and Environmental Science, 2022-02-25) Turyasingura, Benson; Ayiga, NatalGlobally, climate change is currently recognized as one of the most serious risks to communities' socio-economic activity, health, and livelihood. Climate Smart Agriculture is an essential tactic to developing the technical, policy, and investment conditions that enable actions aimed at achieving sustainable agricultural development for food and nutrition security in a changing climate. The purpose of this study was therefore classifying the involvement of men and women in climate smart agricultural practices in Kayonza sub-county, Kanungu district, Uganda. The study was guided by the specific objectives which include investigating the engagement of both men and women in climate-smart practices, establishing different climate-smart practices that are being used and assessing the climate smart agricultural practices adopted in in Kayonza sub-county. The study used descriptive research design utilizing both qualitative and quantitative data collection and analyses methods. Using simple random and purposive sampling techniques, a total of 374 respondents were selected to participate in the study. Questionnaires, key informant interviews, observation methods of data collection were used in this study. It was found out that both men and women were involved in the planting of trees and crops on farms that are typically used for fruit, fodder. Improved cooking stoves, fisheries and aquaculture, pasture management and planting of plant tolerant verities were among the CSA practices. The study recommends that the government should develop a strategy plan for gender quality based on goals that reflect an awareness of the economic and social implications of compromised climate smart agriculture. It was also concluded that both men and women were active in climate-smart farming methods.
- ItemClimate change–drylands–food security nexus in Africa: From the perspective of technical advances, challenges, and opportunities(Frontiers in Environmental Science, 2022-09-06) Hirwa, Hubert; Li, Fadong; Qiao, Yunfeng; Measho, Simon; Muhirwa, Fabien; Tian, Chao; Leng, Peifang; Muhirwa, Fabien; Tian, Chao; Leng, Peifang; Ingabire, Romaine; Itangishaka, Auguste Cesar; Chen, Gang; Turyasingura, BensonClimate change impacts on drylands pose more vexing risks to socio-ecological systems, resulting in food security issues, biodiversity loss, and livelihood shifts in Africa. This study critically reviewed relevant literature to evaluate the complexities and feedback loops between the climate–drylands–food security (CDF) nexus, which helps assess tactics to attain sustainable dryland ecosystem management under the changing environment. Comprehensive CDF frameworks are explored for dryland dynamics, ecosystem services, and food security (FS), and current high precision ecosystem observation networks are used to detect regional-level climate variability and identify hotspots. In addition, this review also examines challenges and uncertainties for CDF systems and effective agrarian innovations as a way forward. To bridge the gap from science to policy making in the CDF nexus, it is vital to enhance the impacts and feedbacks of ecohydrological processes on agrarian production, ecosystem service tradeoffs and their effects on livelihoods, and regional development and preservation by optimization of the ecological water security pattern. This state-of-the-art assessment uses acquired information and knowledge to conceptually evaluate the past, current, and future impacts and risks and facilitates decision making through the delivery of long-term sustainability and socio-ecological resilience.
- ItemClimate Smart Agriculture (CSA) for Sustainable Agriculture Nexus: A Tool for Transforming Food Systems(2023-03-29) Turyasingura, Benson; Ayiga, Natal; Tumwesigye, Wycliffe; James, Philip HegartyClimate Smart Agriculture (CSA) is a global strategy for enhancing food productivity amidst climate change uncertainties in the 21st century. CSA improves farmers’ incomes, reduces greenhouse emissions, and farming systems become resilient to climate change. Despite the vital role that CSA plays in the development of the agricultural industry and the economy, the extent to which CSA is related to sustainable agriculture (SA) is not well documented. Is CSA the same as SA? If they are the same, do CSA practices impose mitigation requirements for developing countries like Uganda? Studies or research on CSA and SA unfortunately have certain shortcomings. Lack of this knowledge makes it difficult to plan investments and develop policies that will increase farmers’ resilience to climate change and variability to improve SA. This study is aimed at assessing how CSA links to SA and whether the two contribute to climate change mitigation requirements. It was found that CSA and SA are also related in a way that the latter leads to lowering greenhouse gas emissions hence mitigating climate change. CSA and SA share a common principal goal of achieving food security. It was concluded that developing countries are the worst affected by the negative impacts of climate change and don’t have the adaptive capacity to respond to climate change effects.
- ItemDiversity at Landscape Level to Increase Resilience. A Review(East African Journal of Environment and Natural Resources, 2022-06-25) Turyasingura, Benson; Mwanjalolo, Majaliwa; Ayiga, NatalTree species increases the number of ecological niches and associated species such as understory plants and animals hence, increased landscape ecosystem diversity. Rapid environmental and economic changes are posing serious dangers to ecosystems and economic systems around the world. This has resulted in the extinction of species, droughts, and price fluctuations in agricultural products. The aim of this review is to document landscape diversity and ecosystem resilience as a tool for natural resources management. The species from one ecosystem's functional group may temporarily support a functional group in another ecosystem, significant variety can help to maintain ecological stability. Hence, building on these insights, diversity at landscape level is paramount to promoting resilient livelihoods as a means of improving the health and functioning of socio-ecological systems, as well as a mechanism for achieving food security. The study concludes that there should be involving many actors in a landscape management aspect to stimulate knowledge exchange and training.
- ItemImpacts of Climate Change on the Plant Water Interactions(Journal of Resources Development and Management, 2023-02-23) Turyasingura, Benson; Ayiga, NatalClimate change has an impact on ecosystem structure and function globally by altering the relationships between plants and soil organisms. Despite the fact that water is the most plentiful molecule on Earth's surface, water scarcity is the element that most severely limits global terrestrial plant production. Little is known about the climatic factors that drive phenological responses to climate change, and less attention has been paid to the fact that phenology is also responsive to other climatic. The aim of this study was to assess the impacts of climate change on plant water interactions. This study was guided by the specific objectives, which included examining the relationship between climate change and plant function; finding out the impacts of climate change on plant water interactions; and assessing how plants handle water scarcity. It was found that there was a linkage between climate change and plant function. The evaporation of water molecules from the outer surfaces of the mesophyll cells initiates the upward transpiration pull in the leaves, and respiring starches and sugars are created during photosynthetic processes using sunlight energy. Climate change enhanced the most enormous movement of species that has occurred without direct human intervention. It was also found that precipitation was a key driver of phenological changes in desert ecosystems. It was also found that drought was one of the most significant biotic challenges faced by plants, with considerable genetic variation in water deficit responses. There is a need for research on climate change to ease biodiversity conservation.
- ItemIs Aquaculture a Success? Evidence from Africa(East African Journal of Agriculture and Biotechnology, 2022-11-22) Okoth, Sharon; Hounsounou, Hilda R.B.; Turyasingura, Benson; Moenga, Kelvin O.; Mwalughali, Thoko B. S.; Lubembi, Sharon IndasiGlobally, human population growth worldwide is something that cannot be controlled, and so there is a need to sustain the needs of a growing population. In Africa, for instance, population projections are made yearly, not even once stagnation is seen. Feeding and nutrition issues, hunger eradication have become a problem with the continuing growth of the population, which in turn is putting a lot of pressure on available resources like capturing fisheries from the lakes, oceans, and rivers, leaving them void. Aquaculture has then proven useful in supplementing the dwindling catch fisheries stocks, which have become incapable of supporting the growing population. Since its introduction in Africa, however, changes have been seen as it has contributed to food security and malnutrition and improved livelihoods by creating jobs and generating income. Currently, diversified products come from aquaculture practices both in inland and freshwaters, ponds, and intensification of aquaculture farming methods, which all put together boost the production to a higher level. Genetics has also been employed to ensure seeds produced for aquaculture are worth being cultured for production. A lot of fisher folks are benefiting both directly and indirectly making a living. Although the contribution of aquaculture is small, sometimes termed insignificant, its growth is steady and it has a promising future as far as its goals (increased protein food production and improved livelihoods of fisher communities) are concerned.
- ItemLaboratory Analysis of Soil Physicochemical Properties Based on Agricultural Fertilizer Input Requirement Application: A Case of Haramaya University, Ethiopia(Plant Physiology and Soil Chemistry (PPSC), 2023-01-20) Turyasingura, Benson; Chavula, Petros; Mohammed, Yasin; Eliyas, Abdi Alic; Girmac , Tesfasilassie; Sadeso, Kumale; Shentema, Solomon; Abebed, Aschalew; Katel, Shambhu; Timsina, SandipaThis study aimed at assessing the soil with detail information about soil properties that are basic for agricultural input requirements such as fertilizer application. It was guided by the specific objectives which include identifying the different steps taken to undertake soil physical, chemical properties and providing basic data on the physical and chemical properties of the selected soil sampling site at Haramaya University, Ethiopia. The laboratory analysis aimed at finding out the physical and chemical soil properties on the deliberate selected area indicated sand-loamy, clayey and sand. The profiles shows some variations in the patterns of the horizons within a profile. Among the soil chemical characteristics, it was found that the soil pH in soil-water suspension varied from 7.63-7.65. Electro-conductivity was very low varying from 0.08 to 1.00 ds/m with an average value of 0.54 ds/m. The maximum exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) value calculated is 6.36 % where the minimum is 0.36 % and averaged value of 3.36 %. Cation Exchange Capacity ranged from 13.20 to 40.38cmol (+)/kg of soil, with mean value of 27.94 cmol (+)/kg. Exchangeable calcium ranged 4.99 cmol (+)/kg to 18.34 cmol (+)/kg with a mean of 12.02 cmol (+)/kg which is rated as high. The potassium value of (0.05, 0.82 meq/100gm), 0.06 meq/100gm and (0.13, 0.46 meq/100gm) of soil respectively. The value of the measured exchangeable sodium ranged from 0.12 to 1.22 meq/100g of soil, with a mean value of 0.44 meq/100g of soil indicating medium sodium content of the soil. Total nitrogen ranging from 0.11 to 0.37 percent which decreases from top to sub soil. In conclusion soil and agronomic management are correlated with the well being of soil. Therefore, it is recommended that integrated nutrient management activities should be adopted in the study area for optimum and sustainable production of major crops.
- ItemLandscape Diversity Enhances Climate Change Resilience: A Review(Int. Res. J. Multidiscip. Technovation, 2022-09-29) Tumwesigye, Wycliffe; Kishoin, Viola; Turyasingura, Benson; Mwanjalolo, Majaliwa; Gilbert, JacksonThe review aimed at understanding landscape diversity in the face of global population pressure, agricultural land shortages, food insecurity, and climate insecurity. We used published literature to determine whether landscape diversity improves resilience to climate change. Literature searches were performed using the Science Direct database, Google Scholar search engine, and the professional network ResearchGate using keywords. Land degradation, soil resilience, and natural resources from 2000 to 2019. 120 publications were searched, including journal articles, reports, and book chapters. Of these, 68 were considered more relevant and all were read and considered in writing this review. Climate change, food insecurity, and land degradation have been established to be major challenges for developing countries leading to the loss of genetic diversity. Our results show that the loss of proper habitat may allow fast-growing invaders to occupy the remaining limited resources. Therefore, alien species may accelerate invasion under human-induced land-use changes during times of global change. The time lag between range expansion and habitat loss has been thwarted. A golden window to prevent the spread of alien species established in the habitat.
- ItemMapping of land degradation using spectral angle mapper approach (SAM): the case of Inaouene watershed (Northeast Morocco)(Springer Nature Switzerla, 2023-04-26) Benzougagh, Brahim; Meshram, Sarita Gajbhiye; Fellah, Bouchta El; Mastere, Mohamed; Basri, Mohamed El; Ouchen, Ibrahim; Sadkaoui, Driss; Bammou, Youssef; Moutaoikil, Nassima; Turyasingura, BensonSoil erosion is one of the most critical hazards adversely afecting both environment and economy for all countries in the world. Several regions of Morocco sufer from the problem of soil erosion, notably the Rif and the Pre-Rif where the study area of this paper is located. The spectacular expansion of soil erosion processes in the Lahdar watershed is a worrying indicator of soil degradation. Geographic information systems and remote sensing are an excellent tool for analyzing and evaluating the risks of the expansion of soil degradation. The main objective of this paper is to assess spectral angle mapper (SAM) method and analyze their properties using geographic information system and image processing techniques in order to map the hazards of soil erosion. Land use and land cover dynamics demonstrate the relationship between human-induced development and the evolution of soil degradation and biodiversity conservation in a watershed. Therefore, an understanding of LULC factors is required for the implementation of environmental policies intended to foster a synergy between humans and the sustainability of their environment. The process of categorizing LULC was completed using the SAM technique, and the role of LULC in the dynamics of soil degradation was investigated using measurements of landscape fragmentation. For this purpose, Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager data (11 bands) with 30-m spatial resolution, 22 August –2017 were used, and classifers for SAM were applied and evaluated. The fndings of the study are seven main land cover categories: arboriculture (0.08%), cereal (35.05%), water (1.03%), forests (3.76%), residentials (4.61%), matorral-course (4.58%), and bare soils (50.89%). It should be noted that the bare soil class occupies half of the watershed area, making it vulnerable to the risks of soil degradation. Moreover, the results from this study will aid decision makers in better conservation planning of soil and water resources.
- ItemWater Accounting and Productivity Analysis to Improve Water Savings of Nile River Basin, East Africa: From Accountability to Sustainability(agronomy, 2022-03-28) Hirwa, Hubert; Zhang, Qiuying; Li, Fadong; Qiao, Yunfeng; Measho, Simon; Muhirwa, Fabien; Xu, Ning; Tian, Chao; Cheng, Hefa; Chen, Gang; Ngwijabagabo, Hyacinthe; Turyasingura, Benson; Itangishaka, Auguste CesarComplete water accounting (WA) and crop water productivity (CWP) analysis is crucial for evaluating water use efficiency (WUE). This study aims to evaluate the contributions of hydro meteorological factors to the changes of WA and CWP and subsequent WUE based on the data from 2009–2020 in the Nile River Basin (NRB), East Africa (EA). The Mann-Kendall (MK) statistical test and Sen’s slope estimator were applied to detect the trends of climatic factors, and the AquaCrop model was used to simulate the crop yields in response to water balance and consumption based on crop physiological, soil water, and salt budget concepts. For the years 2012 and 2019, the mean of climatic water deficit P − ETa was 71.03 km3 and 37.03 km3 , respectively, which was expected to rise to ~494.57 km3 by 2050. The results indicated that the basin water budget was unbalanced due to the coupled impact of year-to-year hot and dry conditions and increase in water abstraction, an indication of water deficit or stress. CWP and WUE increased during the study period with different changing patterns. CWP was also found to correlate to the yield of major crops (p-value > 0.05). It was concluded that climatic factors influenced the crop yield, CWP, and WUE in the study area. Thus, the improvement of CWP and WUE should rely on advanced water-saving innovations. The findings of this study could help water managers to improve water productivity by focusing on water account potentials and creating regional advantages by deploying water in combination with surplus flow from upstream to downstream consumption.
- ItemWater Hyacinth, an Invasive Species in Africa: A Literature Review(East African Journal of Environment and Natural Resources, 2023-07-18) Lubembe, Sharon Indasi; Okoth, Sharon; Turyasingura, Benson; Oyugi, Timothy; Ibarasa, Hillary; Moenga, Kelvin; Chavula, Petros; Tumushabe, Jennifer TuryatembaWater hyacinth is without a doubt the water invader that causes the most harm to water bodies. Water hyacinths originated from Eastern Mediterranean, West Asia, and Central Asia; they are cultivated and loved worldwide. According to reports, water hyacinth has anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and antibacterial properties. The plant extracts can also be used to treat cholera, sore throats, and snake bites, as well as to scent hair. Water hyacinth Pontederia crassipes (Eichhornia crassipes) has proliferated rapidly in African inland waters, posing numerous threats to fisheries by reducing the existence of some species; water quality by lowering levels of dissolved oxygen; human health and the environment by introducing various disease causing pathogens and harbouring dangerous animals. The hyacinths further impact human activities by blocking waterways for fishing and destroying habitat for some fish to bread properly. Tourism and navigation are also affected by limiting access to recreational areas, especially for boat cruising. Fishing; effects on fishing activities and effect on plankton production, which is the main food. Different control methods have been utilised and others suggested in Africa, although it has not been fully controlled as it is highly reproductive and still a menace in African inland waters. The most commonly used control measures are biological and physical controls. As a recommendation, all methods should be used in water bodies to reduce its spread as quickly as possible although with caution on chemical methods. In relation to water hyacinth and its effects on terrestrial animals, there is still a need for much research to still be done; however, it is an aquatic plant that is not wanted in many places does not mean it should be eradicated. Its use to produce biogas could be helpful in reducing the challenges that come with it.
- ItemWetland Conservation and Management Practices in Rubanda District, South-Western Uganda(East African Journal of Environment and Natural Resources, 2022-07-17) Turyasingura, Benson; Saturday, Alex PhD; Hirwa, Hubert; Mohammed, Fatima Sule; Ruhiiga, Tabukeli Musigi; Ayiga, NatalWorldwide, wetlands cover about 9% of the land surface and are recognized as bio networks that offer living prospects when managed properly. Despite the present resource management regime, many wetlands in Uganda are being degraded due to mining, construction, agricultural and industrial activity, and little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of wetland conservation. The goal of this research was to evaluate Nyamuriro wetland conservation and management practices in Muko Sub-County, Rubanda District, in south-western Uganda. The study was guided by specific objectives, which included investigating the management approaches used in Nyamuriro wetland conservation, identifying the management challenges preventing Nyamuriro wetland conservation, and evaluating sustainable solutions to the challenges preventing Nyamuriro wetland conservation. The study employed a descriptive cross-sectional research design that included qualitative and quantitative data gathering and analysis techniques. A total of 109 people participated in the study using simple random and purposive sampling approaches. In this study, data was collected using questionnaires, key informant interviews, and observational approaches. Most respondents strongly agree that wetland restoration is the best management approach for Nyamuriro wetland conservation (Mean = 4.87, SD = 0.547). Corruption was the most significant hindrance to the conservation of Nyamuriro wetland among the management problems (Mean = 3.41, SD = 0.467). Overall, the data showed that there was a significant positive association between conservation management techniques but not between viable Nyamuriro wetland conservation measures. The study recommended that strict laws and procedures should be put in place to ease restrictions on wetland conservation.