Browsing by Author "Fred, Ssempijja"
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- ItemAn analysis of heavy metals contamination and estimating the daily intakes of vegetables from Uganda(Toxicology Research and Application, 2021) Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Eric Oloya, Otim; Herbert Izo, Ninsiima; Gerald, Zirintunda; Andrew, Tamale; Justin, Ekou; Grace Henry, Musoke; Robert, Muyinda; Kevin, Matama; Regan, Mujinya; Henry, Matovu; Fred, Ssempijja; Ejike, Daniel Eze; Mauryn, Atino; Bede, Udechukwu; Ronald, Kayima; Patrick, Etiang; Emmanuel Tiyo, Ayikobua; Stellamaris, Kembabazi; Ibe Michael, Usman; Sheu Oluwadare, Sulaiman; Phyllis Candy, Natabo; Grace Nambatya, Kyeyune; Gaber El-Saber, Batiha; Ochan, OtimEnvironmental contamination with elevated levels of copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr 6þ), cadmium (Cd), and nickel (Ni)—all states of which are found in Uganda—raises health risk to the public. Pb, Cr 6þ, Cd, and Ni for instance are generally considered nonessential to cellular functions, notwithstanding the importance of the oxidative state of the metals in bioavailability. As such, we aimed in this study (i) to evaluate heavy metal concentrations in four vegetables from a typical open-air market in Uganda, (ii) to assess the safety of consuming these vegetables against the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended limits of heavy metals consumption, and (iii) to formulate a model of estimated daily intake (EDI) among consumers in the country. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in five georeferenced markets of Bushenyi district in January 2020. Amaranthus, cabbages, scarlet eggplants, and tomatoes were collected from open markets, processed, and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Modeled EDI, principal component (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were conducted to identify relationships in the samples. Results: The levels of essential elements in the four vegetables were found to fall from Co > Cu > Fe > Zn. Those of non-essential metals were significantly higher and followed the pattern Cd > Cr > Pb > Ni. The highest EDI values were those of Cu in scarlet eggplants, Zn in amaranthus, Fe in amaranthus, Co in amaranthus, Pb in cabbages, total Cr in scarlet eggplant, Cd in cabbages and tomatoes, and Ni in cabbages. In comparison to international limits, EDIs for Zn, Cu, Co and Fe were low while Ni in cabbages were high. PCA showed high variations in scarlet eggplant and amaranthus. The study vegetables were found to be related with each other, not according to the location of the markets from where they were obtained, but according to their species by CA. Conclusion: The presence of non-essential elements above WHO limits raises policy challenges for the consumption and marketing of vegetables in the study area. Furthermore, low EDIs of essential elements in the vegetables create demand for nutritious foods to promote healthy communities
- ItemBehavioural Response To Self-Medication Practice Before and During Covid-19 Pandemic in Western Uganda(Patient Preference and Adherence, 2022) Samuel Sunday, Dare; Ejike, Daniel Eze; Isaac, Echoru; Ibe Michael, Usman; Fred, Ssempijja; Edmund Eriya, Bukenya; Robinson, SsebuufuBackground: Self-medication has become a serious public health problem posing great risks, especially with the increasing number of cases of COVID-19 disease globally and in Uganda. This may be partly because of the absence of a recognized treatment for the disease, however, the differing prevalence and nature from country to country may influence human behavioral responses. Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the behavioral response to self-medication practices during the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown in comparison to the pre-COVID period in Western Uganda. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted from June to August 2020 in western Uganda using online Google forms and printed questionnaires to investigate the level of self-medication practice before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. This included 280 participants, aged 18 and above who consented to participate in the study. Participants were selected using a convenience sampling technique, and sampling was done by sending a structured online questionnaire via Google forms and printed questionnaires to participants who did not use the online Google forms. Results: Respondents that knew about self-medication were 97% of the 272 participants. Those that are aware of self-medication, have heard about it either through different avenues. Respondents who practiced self-medication before the COVID-19 pandemic were 239 (88%); those who practiced self-medication during the COVID-19 pandemic were 156 (57%); those that did not were 115 (43%). There was a statistically significant decrease in the number of respondents who practice self-medication during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown compared to the practice before the pandemic lockdown. p < 0.05 at 95% confidence interval (OR = 5.39, 95% CI = 3.48, 8.32). Conclusion: Our investigation showed adequate knowledge of self-medication and a high level of self-medication practice with a decrease in self-medication practices during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown compared to the practice before the lockdown
- ItemConsumption of Raw Herbal Medicines Is Associated with Major Public Health Risks amongst Ugandans(Journal of Environmental and Public Health, 2020-06-03) Fred, Ssempijja; Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Ejike, Daniel Eze; Andrew, Tamale; Sylvia Anurika, Ewuzie; Kevin, Matama; Justine, Ekou; Paul, Bogere; Regan, Mujinya; Grace Henry, Musoke; Jovile Kasande, Atusiimirwe; Gerald, Zirintunda; Muhamudu, Kalange; Joel, Lyada; Ritah, Kiconco; Theophilus, Pius; Christopher, Nandala; Roland Mugisha, Kamugisha; Yunusu, Hamira; Edgar Mario, Fernandez; Simon Peter, MusinguziCommunity consumption of herbal plants in developing countries is a common practice, however, scarcity of information on their physiochemical composition is a major public health concern. In Uganda, Vernonia amygdalina is of interest in rural communities due to its therapeutical action on both bacterial and protozoal parasites, however no studies have been conducted to assess the heavy metal concentrations in traditional plants used in alternative medicine. +e aim of the study was to establish concentrations of heavy metals in Vernonia amygdalina, model the estimated daily intake (EDI), and assess both the non- cancer-related health risk using the target hazard quotient (THQ), and the risk related to cancer through the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) for the Ugandan population. Methods. Leaves of Vernonia amygdalina were collected from 20 georeferenced villages and processed into powder in the laboratory using standard methods. +ese were then analyzed in the laboratory using an atomic absorption spectrometer for lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), iron (Fe), cadmium (Cd), and nickel (Ni). Concentrations were compared against the World Health Organization (WHO) limits. +e EDI, THQ, and ILCR were modelled and significance was measured at 95% confidence. Results. +e study showed that mean ± SEM concentrations of heavy metals were highest in the order of Cr, 121.8 ± 4.291 ppm > Ni, 84.09 ± 2.725 ppm > Zn, 53.87 ± 2.277 ppm > Pb, Hindawi Journal of Environmental and Public Health Volume 2020, Article ID 8516105, 10 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/8516105 40.61 ± 3.891 ppm > Cu, 28.75 ± 2.202 ppm > Fe, 14.15 ± 0.7271 ppm > Co, 7.923 ± 0.7674 ppm > Cd, 0.1163 ± 0.005714 ppm. Concentrations of Pb, Cr, Zn, Co, and Ni were significantly higher than the WHO limits. +e EDI was significantly higher in children than in adults, demonstrating an increased risk of toxicity in children. +e THQ and ILCR were over 1000 times higher in all Ugandans, demonstrating the undesirable health risks following oral consumption of Vernonia amygdalina due to very high Cr and Ni toxicities, respectively. Conclusion. Consumption of raw Vernonia amygdalina was associated with a high carcinogenic risk, demonstrating a need to enact policies to promote physiochemical screening of herbal medicines used in developing countries against toxic compounds
- ItemA Descriptive-Multivariate Analysis of Community Knowledge, Confidence, and Trust in COVID-19 Clinical Trials among Healthcare Workers in Uganda(MDPI., 2021-03-12) Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Anne, Laudisoit; Lawrence Obado, Osuwat; Gaber El-Saber, Batiha; Naif E. Al, Omairi; Eric, Aigbogun; Herbert Izo, Ninsiima; Ibe Michael, Usman; Lisa M., DeTora; Ewan Thomas, MacLeod; Halima, Nalugo; Francis P., Crawley; Barbara E., Bierer; Daniel Chans, Mwandah; Charles Drago, Kato; Kenedy, Kiyimba; Emmanuel Tiyo, Ayikobua; Linda, Lillian; Kevin, Matama; Shui Ching, Nelly Mak; David, Onanyang; Theophilus, Pius; Linda, Lillian; Kevin, Matama; Shui Ching, Nelly Mak; David, Onanyang; Theophilus, Pius; David Paul, Nalumenya; Robinson, Ssebuufu; Nina Olivia, Rugambwa; Grace Henry, Musoke; Kevin, Bardosh; Juma John, Ochieng; Fred, Ssempijja; Patrick, Kyamanywa; Gabriel, Tumwine; Khalid J., Alzahrani; Susan Christina, WelburnBackground—misinformation and mistrust often undermines community vaccine uptake, yet information in rural communities, especially of developing countries, is scarce. This study aimed to identify major challenges associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine clinical trials among healthcare workers and staff in Uganda. Methods—a rapid exploratory survey was conducted over 5 weeks among 260 respondents (66% male) from healthcare centers across the country using an online questionnaire. Twenty-seven questions assessed knowledge, confidence, and trust scores on COVID-19 vaccine clinical trials from participants in 46 districts in Uganda. Results—we found low levels of knowledge (i.e., confusing COVID-19 with Ebola) with males being more informed than females (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 0.7–3.0), and mistrust associated with policy decisions to promote herbal treatments in Uganda and the rushed international clinical trials, highlighting challenges for the upcoming Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccinations. Knowledge, confidence and trust scores were higher among the least educated (certificate vs. bachelor degree holders). We also found a high level of skepticism and possible community resistance to DNA recombinant vaccines, such as the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine. Preference for herbal treatments (38/260; 14.6%, 95% CI: 10.7–19.3) currently being promoted by the Ugandan government raises major policy concerns. High fear and mistrust for COVID-19 vaccine clinical trials was more common among wealthier participants and more affluent regions of the country. Conclusion—our study found that knowledge, confidence, and trust in COVID-19 vaccines was low among healthcare workers in Uganda, especially those with higher wealth and educational status. There is a need to increase transparency and inclusive participation to address these issues before new trials of COVID-19 vaccines are initiated
- ItemGreen tea silver nanoparticles improve physiological motor and cognitive function in BALB/c mice during inflammation(2023) Herbert Izo, Ninsiima; Ejike, Daniel Eze; Kenneth, Ssekatawa; Halima, Nalugo; Caroline, Asekenye; David, Onanyang; Edson Ireeta, Munanura; Moses, Ariong; Kevin, Matama; Gerald, Zirintunda; Ngala Elvis, Mbiydzenyuy; Fred, Ssempijja; Adam Moyosore, Afodun; Ibe Michael, Usman; Oscar Hilary, Asiimwe; Julius, Tibyangye; Keneth Iceland, KasoziInformation on the basic changes associated with green tea small molecules in acute inflammation is deficient. The purpose of the study was to characterize and establish the effects of green tea silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) following inflammation in BALB/c male mice. In this study, green tea silver nitrate nanoparticles were characterized and the extract were made up to constitute high (100%), medium (10%), and low (1%) concentrations for administration. Acute inflam- mation was induced in groups I–V of the experimental rodents by injecting 0.5 ml/kg of fresh egg albumin on the subplantar surface of the right hind paw and animals were monitored for 36 h. Group I–III were administered 100%, 10%, 1% green tea nanoparticles extract while group IV was given diclofenac. Group V was the positive control while group VI was the negative control that received the vehicle. Paw edema was measured at a 2 h interval for 3 days, while the pain was assessed by measuring the locomotion activity using the voluntary wheel running and the anxiety- like behavior. Hypersensitivity was measured through the temperature sensation experiment and a non-linear regression analysis was done. Here, synthesized green tea AgNPs registered anabsorbance band at 460 nm, phytochemicals due to presence of organic functional groups of O––C––O of oxycarbons, of C––C of a conjugate alkene, C––O of a stretching bond of a secondary alcohol. The silver green tea nanoparticles were spherical, covered by a slimy layer, capped and stable. Green tea AgNPs significantly decreased temperature hypersensitivity in BALB/c male mice and this demonstrated their protective effects. Low concentrations of green tea nanoparticles inhibited edema thus mimicking effects of diclofenac, however, the percentage of inhibition was highest in medium and high silver-tea nanoparticles concentrations demonstration the impor- tance of concentration in therapeutics. Anxiety was lowest in BALB/c male mice treated with high concentrations of silver green tea nanoparticles, and this led to increased locomotory activity in mice. Green tea AgNPs have strong anti-inflammatory effects at high concentrations. Concen- trations of green tea AgNPs modulated basic sensory and motor behaviors in BALB/c male mice demonstrating their importance in complementary and integrative medical practice.
- ItemLow concentrations of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ( Yoba®) are safe in male Drosophila melanogaster(BMC Res Notes, 2019) Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Aisha, Bukenya; Ejike, Daniel Eze; Josephine, Kasolo; Dickson Stuart, Tayebwa; Fred, Ssempijja; Joy, Suubo; Andrew, Tamale; Isaac, Echoru; Ibrahim, Ntulume; Sarah, Kemuma Onkoba; Lisa Nkatha, Micheni; Emmanuel Tiyo, Ayikobua; Oscar Hilary, Asiimwe; Muhamudu, KalangeObjective: The purpose of the study was to generate information on the safety of probiotics, thus the study objectives were to evaluate the effects of Yoba ® on basic physiochemical properties. The study assessed male w1118 Drosophila melanogaster which were provided food supplemented with Yoba ® at 1%, 3%, 6%, and 12% on motor function, total protein, catalase activity, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and lifespan. Results: Yoba® at high concentration (≥ 6%) increased locomotor activity in Drosophila melanogaster, however, total protein, catalase, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity were significantly higher at 1% Yoba ® compared to 3%, 6%, and 12% Yoba ®. Yoba consumed at 1% was associated with greater physiological benefits in Drosophila melanogaster. Findings in the study offer a rationale for the consumption of Yoba ® at 1% in humans as is currently being promoted by the Yoba for Life consortium, however, high concentrations of Yoba ® would disrupt physiological function as shown by this study.
- ItemLow concentrations of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ( Yoba®) are safe in male Drosophila melanogaster(Research Note, 2019) Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Aisha, Bukenya; Ejike, Daniel Eze; Josephine, Kasolo; Dickson Stuart, Tayebwa; Fred, Ssempijja; Joy, Suubo; Andrew, Tamale; Isaac, Echoru; Ibrahim, Ntulume; Sarah Kemuma, Onkoba; Lisa Nkatha, Micheni; Emmanuel Tiyo, Ayikobua; Oscar Hilary, Asiimwe; Muhamudu, KalangeObjective: The purpose of the study was to generate information on the safety of probiotics, thus the study objectives were to evaluate the effects of Yoba ® on basic physiochemical properties. The study assessed male w1118 Drosophila melanogaster which were provided food supplemented with Yoba ® at 1%, 3%, 6%, and 12% on motor function, total protein, catalase activity, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and lifespan. Results: Yoba® at high concentration (≥ 6%) increased locomotor activity in Drosophila melanogaster, however, total protein, catalase, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity were significantly higher at 1% Yoba ® compared to 3%, 6%, and 12% Yoba ®. Yoba consumed at 1% was associated with greater physiological benefits in Drosophila melanogaster. Findings in the study offer a rationale for the consumption of Yoba ® at 1% in humans as is currently being promoted by the Yoba for Life consortium, however, high concentrations of Yoba ® would disrupt physiological function as shown by this study.
- ItemThe Rise of SARS-CoV-2 Variants and the Role of Convalescent Plasma Therapy for Management of Infections(Life, 2021-07-31) Mohamed, Moubarak; Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Helal F., Hetta; Hazem M., Shaheen; Abdur, Rauf; Hayder M., Al-kuraishy; Safaa, Qusti; Eida M., Alshammari; Emmanuel Tiyo, Ayikobua; Fred, Ssempijja; Adam Moyosore, Afodun; Ritah, Kenganzi; Ibe Michael, Usman; Juma John, Ochieng; Lawrence Obado, Osuwat; Kevin, Matama; Ali I., Al-Gareeb; Emmanuel, Kairania; Monica, Musenero; Susan, Christina Welburn; Gaber, El-Saber BatihaNovel therapies for the treatment of COVID-19 are continuing to emerge as the SARS-Cov- 2 pandemic progresses. PCR remains the standard benchmark for initial diagnosis of COVID-19 infection, while advances in immunological profiling are guiding clinical treatment. The SARS- Cov-2 virus has undergone multiple mutations since its emergence in 2019, resulting in changes in virulence that have impacted on disease severity globally. The emergence of more virulent variants of SARS-Cov-2 remains challenging for effective disease control during this pandemic. Major variants identified to date include B.1.1.7, B.1.351; P.1; B.1.617.2; B.1.427; P.2; P.3; B.1.525; and C.37. Globally, large unvaccinated populations increase the risk of more and more variants arising. With successive waves of COVID-19 emerging, strategies that mitigate against community transmission need to be implemented, including increased vaccination coverage. For treatment, convalescent plasma therapy, successfully deployed during recent Ebola outbreaks and for H1N1 influenza, can increase survival rates and improve host responses to viral challenge. Convalescent plasma is rich with cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-17, and IL-8), CCL2, and TNFα, neutralizing antibodies, and clotting factors essential for the management of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Clinical trials can inform and guide treatment policy, leading to mainstream adoption of convalescent therapy. This review examines the limited number of clinical trials published, to date that have deployed this therapy and explores clinical trials in progress for the treatment of COVID-19
- ItemSafety of Drinking Water from Primary Water Sources and Implications for the General Public in Uganda(Hindawi, 2019-03-25) Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Sarah, Namubiru; Roland, Kamugisha; Ejike, Daniel Eze; Fred, Ssempijja; Alfred, Omachonu Okpanachi; Hellen, Wambui Kinyi,; Jovile Kasande, Atusiimirwe; Dickson Stuart, Tayebwa; Joy, Suubo; Edgar Mario, Fernandez; Nathan, Nshakira; Andrew, Tamale,ere is scarcity of information about the quality and safety of drinking water in Africa. Without such vital information, sustainable development goal number 6 which promotes availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation remains elusive especially in developing countries. ,e study aimed at determining concentrations of inorganic compounds, estimated daily intake (EDI), target hazard quotient (THQ), hazard index (HI), incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR), and identify safe drinking water source sources in Southwestern Uganda. Methods. ,is was an observational study in which 40 drinking water samples were collected from georeferenced boreholes, springs, open wells, bottled, and taps within Bushenyi district of Southwestern Uganda. Water samples were analyzed for copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr) levels using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Water safety measures (EDI, HI, and ILCR) were established for each water source and compared with local and international water permissible standards for each analyte. A spatial map was drawn using qGIS®, and analysis of quantitative data was done using MS Excel 2013 at 95% significance. Results. Heavy metals were present in the following order: 11.276 ppm> 4.4623ppm > 0.81ppm > 0.612ppm > 0.161 ppm for Fe, Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd, respectively, while Cr was not detected. Fe was the primary water heavy metal in the order of open well > borehole > tap > spring > bottled water. ,is was followed by Zn levels in the order of tap > bottled > spring > borehole > open well. All compounds were within international water safety standards except Pb. Hence, there is need for the government of Uganda to establish water filtration systems, particularly for Pb to improve the quality of water for the general public.,eEDI was similar (P > 0.05) for water consumed from spring, bottled, and tap sources for Fe and Zn levels. Similarly, no differences were found in the EDI for children and adults (P > 0.05). Furthermore, the HI showed an absence of noncarcinogenic risk associated (HI < 1), although the ILCR was higher in adults than children (P < 0.05) due to high Cd concentrations. Conclusion. ,e current identified Fe is a major heavy metal in drinking water of Uganda, and boreholes were the major safest sources of drinking water identified in this study.