Browsing by Author "Susan Christina, Welburn"
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- ItemA Descriptive-Multivariate Analysis of Community Knowledge, Confidence, and Trust in COVID-19 Clinical Trials among Healthcare Workers in Uganda(MDPI., 2021-03-12) Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Anne, Laudisoit; Lawrence Obado, Osuwat; Gaber El-Saber, Batiha; Naif E. Al, Omairi; Eric, Aigbogun; Herbert Izo, Ninsiima; Ibe Michael, Usman; Lisa M., DeTora; Ewan Thomas, MacLeod; Halima, Nalugo; Francis P., Crawley; Barbara E., Bierer; Daniel Chans, Mwandah; Charles Drago, Kato; Kenedy, Kiyimba; Emmanuel Tiyo, Ayikobua; Linda, Lillian; Kevin, Matama; Shui Ching, Nelly Mak; David, Onanyang; Theophilus, Pius; Linda, Lillian; Kevin, Matama; Shui Ching, Nelly Mak; David, Onanyang; Theophilus, Pius; David Paul, Nalumenya; Robinson, Ssebuufu; Nina Olivia, Rugambwa; Grace Henry, Musoke; Kevin, Bardosh; Juma John, Ochieng; Fred, Ssempijja; Patrick, Kyamanywa; Gabriel, Tumwine; Khalid J., Alzahrani; Susan Christina, WelburnBackground—misinformation and mistrust often undermines community vaccine uptake, yet information in rural communities, especially of developing countries, is scarce. This study aimed to identify major challenges associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine clinical trials among healthcare workers and staff in Uganda. Methods—a rapid exploratory survey was conducted over 5 weeks among 260 respondents (66% male) from healthcare centers across the country using an online questionnaire. Twenty-seven questions assessed knowledge, confidence, and trust scores on COVID-19 vaccine clinical trials from participants in 46 districts in Uganda. Results—we found low levels of knowledge (i.e., confusing COVID-19 with Ebola) with males being more informed than females (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 0.7–3.0), and mistrust associated with policy decisions to promote herbal treatments in Uganda and the rushed international clinical trials, highlighting challenges for the upcoming Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccinations. Knowledge, confidence and trust scores were higher among the least educated (certificate vs. bachelor degree holders). We also found a high level of skepticism and possible community resistance to DNA recombinant vaccines, such as the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine. Preference for herbal treatments (38/260; 14.6%, 95% CI: 10.7–19.3) currently being promoted by the Ugandan government raises major policy concerns. High fear and mistrust for COVID-19 vaccine clinical trials was more common among wealthier participants and more affluent regions of the country. Conclusion—our study found that knowledge, confidence, and trust in COVID-19 vaccines was low among healthcare workers in Uganda, especially those with higher wealth and educational status. There is a need to increase transparency and inclusive participation to address these issues before new trials of COVID-19 vaccines are initiated
- ItemMolecular epidemiology of anaplasmosis in small ruminants along a human-livestock-wildlife interface in Uganda(Heliyon, 2020) Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Susan Christina, WelburnBackground: Information as regards the epidemiology of the Anaplasmataceae in small ruminants in several lowand middle-income countries is scarce. Methods: In this study a total of 712 DNA samples collected from small ruminants were analyzed for Anaplasmataceae and Anaplasma ovis using the 16S rRNA and MSP4 genes respectively. Infection risk was assessed by location, sex and age of the animals and qGIS® was used to construct spatial maps. Results: The prevalence of Anaplasmataceae spp was 89.1% (95% CI: 77.5–95.9) and 79.1% (95% CI: 75.9–82.1) in ovines and caprines respectively (RR ¼ 1.1, 95% CI: 1.0–1.3); higher than those previously reported in other eastern African countries. The prevalence of A. ovis was 26.1% and 25.4% for both ovines and caprines respectively with ovines showing significantly higher levels of infection than caprines (P < 0.05). The risk of Anaplasma ovis infections was not affected by age (OR ¼ 1.2, 95% CI: 0.9–1.7) or sex (OR ¼ 1.1, 95% CI: 0.6–2.0). Small ruminants located at the forest edge (<0.3 km) showed higher A. ovis prevalence than those found inland with infections present in the midland regions associated with increased agricultural activity. Conclusion: Anaplasma ovis remains a major challenge for small ruminant husbandry in Uganda and infections are under-reported. Policy efforts to prioritize management of Anaplasmataceae for small ruminant health would promote livestock productivity in vulnerable communities, improving livelihoods and ecosystem health.
- ItemSystematic Review and Meta-Analysis on Human African Trypanocide Resistance(MDPI., 2022-09-25) Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Ewan Thomas, MacLeod; Susan Christina, WelburnBackground Human African trypanocide resistance (HATr) is a challenge for the eradica- tion of Human African Trypansomiaisis (HAT) following the widespread emergence of increased monotherapy drug treatment failures against Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense that are associated with changes in pathogen receptors. Methods: Electronic searches of 12 databases and 3 Google search websites for human African trypanocide resistance were performed using a keyword search criterion applied to both laboratory and clinical studies. Fifty-one publications were identified and included in this study using the PRISMA checklist. Data were analyzed using RevMan and random effect sizes were computed for the statistics at the 95% confidence interval. Results: Pentamidine/melarsoprol/nifurtimox cross-resistance is associated with loss of the T. brucei adenosine transporter 1/purine 2 gene (TbAT1/P2), aquaglyceroporins (TbAQP) 2 and 3, followed by the high affinity pentamidine melarsoprol transporter (HAPT) 1. In addition, the loss of the amino acid transporter (AAT) 6 is associated with eflornithine resistance. Nifurtimox/eflornithine combination therapy resistance is associated with AAT6 and nitroreductase loss, and high resistance and parasite regrowth is responsible for treatment relapse. In clinical studies, the TbAT1 proportion of total random effects was 68% (95% CI: 38.0–91.6); I2 = 96.99% (95% CI: 94.6–98.3). Treatment failure rates were highest with melarsoprol followed by eflornithine at 41.49% (95% CI: 24.94–59.09) and 6.56% (3.06–11.25) respectively. HATr-resistant phenotypes used in most laboratory experiments demonstrated significantly higher pentamidine resistance than other trypanocides. Conclusion: The emergence of drug resistance across the spectrum of trypanocidal agents that are used to treat HAT is a major threat to the global WHO target to eliminate HAT by 2030. T. brucei strains were largely resistant to diamidines and the use of high trypanocide concentrations in clinical studies have proved fatal in humans. Studies to develop novel chemotherapeutical agents and identify alternative protein targets could help to reduce the emergence and spread of HATr.
- ItemSystematic Review and Meta-Analysis on Knowledge Attitude and Practices on African Animal Trypanocide Resistance(Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease, 2022-08-23) Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Ewan Thomas, MacLeod; Charles, Waiswa; Michael, Mahero; Ibrahim, Ntulume; Susan Christina, WelburnBackground: African trypanocide resistance is an emerging public health emergency whose control requires a revisit on farmer’s knowledge, attitudes, and practices in developing countries. African animal trypanocide resistance (AATr) is rife in an environment where drug use and policy decisions are disjointed. The objective of the study was to identify community factors responsible for the development of AATr. This was important since diminazene aceturate (DA), isometamidium chloride (ISM), and homidium bromide (HB) have existed for over 30 years and no new drugs have been provided to farmers. Methods: An electronic keyword search across 12 databases was conducted using a search criterion from 1806 to June 2022. This generated a total of 24 publications, but after removing duplicates, review articles, and nonrelated articles, a total of eight papers were included in the analysis by following the PRISMA checklist. A meta-analysis was conducted on the data extracted and the risk ratio and inverse variance at 95% confidence interval were calculated using RevMan®. Results: All the eight articles in the study showed that DA was the most preferred trypanocide in both West and Eastern Africa. Poor farmer knowledge of AATr and limited drug options were major drivers for trypanocide resistance. In addition, farmer treatments, use of untrained personnel, poor administration, poor dosing, and preparation of trypanocides were major drivers for the development of AATr and similarities were identified in DA and ISM practices (P = 0.13). Conclusions: AATr is spread in developing countries due to a lack of community knowledge, attitudes, and drug-use practices. This situation could be reversed through interdisciplinary collaborations in endemic communities by promoting effective treatments and responsible drug handling.