Browsing by Author "Ssebuufu, Robinson"
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- ItemAnxiety, Anger and Depression Amongst Low-Income Earners in Southwestern Uganda During the COVID-19 Total Lockdown(Kabale University, 2021) Archibong, Victor; Usman, Ibe Michael; Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Osamudiamwen, Eric Aigbogun Jr.; Josiah, Iﬁe; Monima, Ann Lemuel; Ssebuufu, Robinson; Chekwech, Gaudencia; Terkimbi, Swase Dominic; Owoisinke, Okon; Mbiydzenyuy, Ngala Elvis; Adeoye, Azeez; Aruwa, oshua Ojodale; Afodun, Adam Moyosore; Odoma, Saidi; Ssempijja, Fred; Ayikobua, Emmanuel Tiyo; Ayuba, John Tabakwot; Nankya, Viola; Onongha, Comfort; Sussan, Henry; Matama, Kevin; Yusuf, Helen; Nalugo, Halima; MacLeod, Ewan; Welburn, Susan ChristinaBackground: Low-income earners are particularly vulnerable to mental health, consequence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown restrictions, due to a temporary or permanent loss of income and livelihood, coupled with government-enforced measures of social distancing. This study evaluates the mental health status among low-income earners in southwestern Uganda during the ﬁrst total COVID-19 lockdown in Uganda. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken amongst earners whose income falls below the poverty threshold. Two hundred and ﬁfty-three (n = 253) male and female low-income earners between the ages of 18 and 60 years of age were recruited to the study. Modiﬁed generalized anxiety disorder (GAD-7), Spielberger’s State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 (STAXI-2), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) tools as appropriate were used to assess anxiety, anger, and depression respectively among our respondents. Results: Severe anxiety (68.8%) followed by moderate depression (60.5%) and moderate anger (56.9%) were the most common mental health challenges experienced by low-income earners in Bushenyi district. Awareness of mental healthcare increased with the age of respondents in both males and females. A linear relationship was observed with age and depression (r = 0.154, P = 0.014) while positive correlations were observed between anxiety and anger (r = 0.254, P < 0.001); anxiety and depression (r = 0.153, P = 0.015) and anger and depression (r = 0.153, P = 0.015). Conclusion: The study shows the importance of mental health awareness in low resource settings during the current COVID-19 pandemic. Females were identiﬁed as persons at risk to mental depression, while anger was highest amongst young males. Keywords: COVID-19 response, Africa, Socio-economic impacts, Psychosocial, Hunger, Women.
- ItemCommunity Drivers Affecting Adherence to WHO Guidelines Against COVID-19 Amongst Rural Ugandan Market Vendors.(Kabale University, 2020) Usman, Ibe Michael; Ssempijja, Fred; Ssebuufu, Robinson; Lemuel, Ann Monima; Archibong, Victor Bassey; Ayikobua, Emmanuel Tiyo; Aruwa, Joshua Ojodale; Kembabazi, Stellamaris; Kegoye, Eric Simidi; Ayuba, John Tabakwot; Okeniran, Olatayo Segun; Echoru, Isaac; Adeoye, Azeez; Mujinya, Regan; Nankya, Viola; Keneth Iceland, Kasozi,Background: Market vendors occupy a strategic position in the ﬁght against the spread of SARS CoV-2 in rural Uganda. To successfully contain the spread of the virus, special attention needs to be given to this set of people by assessing the type of information, source of information, and practices they inculcate as regards adherence to WHO guidelines in the ﬁght against COVID-19 in Uganda. The study aimed to assess the role of information sources, education level, and phone internet connectivity in inﬂuencing COVID-19 knowledge among the rural market vendors; and the relationship existing between knowledge, attitude, and practices among them. Methods: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional study among rural market vendors (n = 248) in southwestern Uganda. Information was collected using a questionnaire and descriptively presented as frequency and percentages. Results: The study showed that the majority of the rural market vendors had sufﬁcient information regarding COVID-19 with the majority being female individuals and have attained a secondary level of education, The general percentage score for knowledge, attitude, and practices were (75.57, 82.6, and 76.50% respectively). There was a positive correlation between attitude and practices (r = 0.17, p = 0.007), as well as their knowledge with practices (r = 0.29, p < 0.001). The majority of the people in the population did not have their phones connected to the internet (OR = 1.96, 95%CI: 1.16–3.31, P = 0.01). The majority of people received their information regarding COVID-19 from one source (radio) (OR = 1.55). Conclusion: Where and how the rural market vendors get their information and education level are vital in breaking COVID 19 infection circle in line with WHO guidelines. Therefore, sources of information and education level played a key role in molding their knowledge and practices. However, the level of knowledge on COVID 19 among our respondents was not linked with phone internet connectivity. Keywords: COVID-19, SARS CoV-2, market-vendors, Information, Rural Community, Africa Response, Uganda
- ItemCOVID-19-Related Mental Health Burdens: Impact of Educational Level and Relationship Status Among Low-Income Earners of Western Uganda(Kabale University, 2021) Lemuel, Ann Monima; Usman, Ibe Michael; Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Alghamdi, Saad; Aigbogun, Eric Osamudiamwen; Archibong, Victor; Ssebuufu, Robinson; Kabanyoro, Annet; Iﬁe, Josiah Eseoghene; Swase, Dominic Terkimbi; Ssempijja, Fred; Ayuba, John Tabakwot; Matama, Kevin; Onohuean, Hope; Kembabazi, Stellamaris; Henry, Rachael; Odoma, Said; Yusuf, Helen; Afodun, Adam Moyosore; Assaggaf, Hamza M.; Kairania, Emmanuel; Aslam, Akhmed; Okon, Owoisinke; Batiha, Gaber El-Saber; Welburn, Susan ChristinaObjective: The study aimed to investigate the relationship between mental health with the level of education, relationship status, and awareness on mental health among low-income earners in Western Uganda. Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out among 253 participants. Anxiety, anger, and depression were assessed using a modiﬁed generalized anxiety disorder (GAD-7), Spielberger’s State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2, and Beck Depression Inventory item tools, respectively. Results: The majority of our respondents were male (n = 150/253, 59.3), had a secondary level of education (104/253, 41.1), and were single (137/253, 54.2). No formal education and primary education (r2 = 47.4% and 6.4%, respectively) had a negative correlation with awareness of mental health care. In addition, no formal education had a positive correlation with anger and depression (r2 = 1.9% and 0.3%, respectively). Singleness in this study had a negative correlation with awareness of mental health care, anger, and depression (r2 = 1.9, 0.8, and 0.3%, respectively), and a positive correlation with anxiety (r2 = 3.9%). Conclusion: It is evident that education and relationship status inﬂuenced awareness on mental health care and mental health state among low-income earners in Western Uganda during the ﬁrst COVID-19 lockdown. Therefore, policymakers should strengthen social transformation through the proper engagement of low-income earners in this COVID-19 era. Keywords: Mental Healthcare, Awareness, Relationship, Status, Educational Level, COVID-19, Low-Income Earners, Western Uganda.
- ItemMalnutrition Amongst HIV Adult Patients in Selected Hospitals of Bushenyi District in Southwestern Uganda.(Kabale University, 2020) Odwee, Ambrose; Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Acup, Christine Amongi; Kyamanywa, Patrick; Ssebuufu, Robinson; Obura, Richard; Agaba, Jude B.; Makeri, Danladi; Kirimuhuzya, Claude; Sasirabo, Olivia; Bamaiyi, Pwaveno H.Background: Malnutrition is an important clinical outcome amongst HIV patients in developing countries and in Uganda, there is scarcity of information on its prevalence and risk factors amongst HIV adult patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study amongst 253 HIV patients in Bushenyi district assessed their nutritional status using the body mass index (BMI) and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), and a questionnaire was used to identify major risk factors. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 38.74 ± 0.80 yrs, while females and males were 52.2% and 47.8% respectively. Prevalence of malnutrition was 10.28% (95% CI: 6.82 – 14.69) in the study. Major socio-economic factors associated with malnutrition were being female, unemployed, dependent and with many family members. Patients with opportunistic infections, low adherence to HAART, and stage of HIV/AIDS had a higher risk of malnutrition Discussion: In rural communities, a majority of malnourished patients are elderly and these were identified as priority groups for HIV outreach campaigns. The current policy of prioritizing children and women is outdated due to changing disease dynamics, thus showing a need to revise extension service provision in rural communities. Conclusions: Malnutrition is a threat in HIV adult patients in rural communities of Uganda. Keywords: Malnutrition, HIV Adult PPatients, Bushenyi District,Uganda.
- ItemMisconceptions on COVID-19 Risk Among Ugandan Men: Results From a Rapid Exploratory Survey, April 2020(Kabale University, 2020) Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; MacLeod, Ewan; Ssempijja, Fred; Mahero, Michael W.; Matama, Kevin; Musoke, Grace Henry; Bardosh, Kevin; Ssebuufu, Robinson; Wakoko-Studstil, Florence; Echoru, Isaac; Tiyo Ayikobua, Emmanuel; Mujinya, Regan; Nambuya, Grace; Onohuean, Hope; Zirintunda, Gerald; Ekou, Justine; Welburn, Susan ChristinaBackground: Transmission of COVID-19 in developing countries is expected to surpass that in developed countries; however, information on community perceptions of this new disease is scarce. The aim of the study was to identify possible misconceptions among males and females toward COVID-19 in Uganda using a rapid online survey distributed via social media. Methods: A cross-sectional survey carried out in early April 2020 was conducted with 161 Ugandans, who purposively participated in the online questionnaire that assessed understandings of COVID-19 risk and infection. Sixty-four percent of respondents were male and 36% were female. Results: We found signiﬁcant divergences of opinion on gendered susceptibility to COVID-19. Most female respondents considered infection risk, symptoms, severe signs, and death to be equally distributed between genders. In contrast, male respondents believed they were more at risk of infection, severe symptoms, severe signs, and death (52.7 vs. 30.6%, RR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.14–2.8). Most women did not share this perception and disagreed that males were at higher risk of infection (by a factor of three), symptoms (79% disagree), severe signs (71%, disagree), and death (70.2% disagree). Overall, most respondents considered children less vulnerable (OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 0.55–2.2) to COVID-19 than adults, that children present with less symptoms (OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 0.77–3.19), and that there would be less mortality in children (OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.41–1.88). Of female respondents, 76.4% considered mortality from COVID-19 to be different between the young and the elderly (RR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.01–2.92) and 92.7% believed young adults would show fewer signs than the elderly, and 71.4% agreed that elderly COVID-19 patients would show more severe signs than the young (OR = 2.2, 95%CI: 1.4, 4.8). While respondents considered that all races were susceptible to the signs and symptoms of infection as well as death from COVID-19, they considered mortality would be highest among white people from Europe and the USA. Some respondents (mostly male 33/102, 32.4%) considered COVID-19 to be a “disease of whites” (30.2%). Conclusion: The WHO has identiﬁed women and children in rural communities as vulnerable persons who should be given more attention in the COVID-19 national response programs across Africa; however, our study has found that men in Uganda perceive themselves to be at greater risk and that these contradictory perceptions (including the association of COVID-19 with “the white” race) suggest an important discrepancy in the communication of who is most vulnerable and why. Further research is urgently needed to validate and expand the results of this small exploratory study. Keywords: COVID-19, Uganda, Africa, United Nations Gender , impact children.