Browsing by Author "Sarah, Nachuha"
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- ItemCitrus fruit farmers’ adaptation capacities to climate variability in Ngora district, Eastern Uganda(Kabale University Interdisciplinary Research Journal (KURJ), 2022) Simon Peter, Achuu; Sarah, Nachuha; Joweria, Nakizito; Henry Musoke, Semakula; Hosea Enos, OpedesOver the past three decades the government of Uganda prioritized fruits growing in Teso sub-region as a means to promote socioeconomic development. However, climate variability threatens the realization of this initiative and yet inadequate research has been done to address this gap. This study assessed citrus fruit farmers’ adaptation capacities to climate variability in Ngora district, eastern Uganda. Longitudinal and cross-sectional research designs were adopted in which 135 randomly selected farmers were interviewed. Findings indicated that 82% of the respondents attested that rainfall amounts and temperature patterns had changed with the highest rainfall of 1686 mm received in 1991, and the lowest amount of 785mm received in 2009. Average annual temperatures in the same period varied between 23.8ºC and 25.7ºC. These variations contributed to a drop in orange fruit yields from 90% in 2015 to below 54% in 2016. Overall, 94.8% of citrus farmers were aware of the term climate variability and they associated it to variation in rainfall amounts and distribution, rise in surface temperature and occurrence of droughts; 73.3% of the farmers had positive attitude towards climate variability adaptation especially in instances where it directly affected their livelihoods. Only 21% of the farmers did something to adapt to climate variability through irrigating young orange trees. Conclusively, citrus growing provided an option to poverty eradication, however climate variability threatens farmer’s efforts. In a short-run farmers may be encouraged to work in groups. Overall capital investment on irrigation technology by government and or other stakeholders will offer lasting solution
- ItemForaging Behaviour of the Black-Headed Heron at Kibimba Rice Scheme, Eastern Uganda(Advances in Research, 2020) Sarah, Nachuha; M. Polycarp, MwimaVariations in the factors affecting prey availability directly impact on the spatial dispersion of foraging birds. The feeding success and efficiency of the Black-headed Heron (Ardea melanocephala) was examined in the different growth stages/phases of paddy rice, namely: Ploughed fields, Phase 1 fields (2 weeks-1 month after sowing) and Harvested fields. Feeding success of the Black-headed Heron varied significantly across the rice growth stage. This variation was explained by a combination of factors such water depth, waterbird abundance, Nearest Neighbor Distance (NND) and food or prey abundance (except amphibian abundance). Statistical analysis were conducted using Genstat Version 8.1 (VSN Intl.2003, in which a General Linear Mixed Model were used to examine the variation in each behavioural measure. Foraging in aggregations on rice paddies seems to be more beneficial to the Black-headed Heron. The closeness to a conspecific had a positive effect on the feeding efficiency of the Black-headed Heron as they foraged on fields with abundant prey (Phase 1) and a negative effect on fields with less abundant prey (Ploughed fields). Generally, the data seem to suggest that there is a functional relationship between the Black-headed Heron, and prey abundance, and the absence of interference competition on rice fields.
- ItemPesticide application and water quality in Doho and Kibimba rice irrigation schemes, eastern Uganda(Kabale University Interdisciplinary Research Journal (KURJ), 2022) Sulaiman, Abubakar Aminua; Sarah, Nachuha; Zakia, TebetyocThe number and amount of agrochemicals used has increased dramatically world over and their toxic nature has raised concern about environmental impact and effects on human health. Considering that agriculture is a major source of income in most developing countries, crop damage from pest infestation is of great concern to many farmers. These farmers are therefore motivated to apply pesticides. However, runoff from such farmlands unintendedly contaminates the water sources thereby causing harm to aquatic life and contaminates drinking water. This study was carried out at Doho and Kibimba irrigation schemes, which are the two commercial paddy rice growing areas in Uganda. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pesticide application on water quality in these two schemes and assess community awareness of the dangers of pesticide application. A cross sectional research design was used to collect data. A total of 60 samples (30 from each site) on physicochemical characteristics were collected in situ using standard equipment. 200 local community members (100 from each scheme) were randomly selected while on the farm and interviewed. Statistical analyses were conducted using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) program, version 20. Results showed that there were significant spatial differences in all the physical chemical properties of water in Doho Rice Scheme (P<0.05), while significant spatial variations were recorded for only pH, temperature at Kibimba rice scheme (P<0.05). Independent t-test results showed that water pH, temperature and turbidity varied significantly between Doho and Kibimba (P<0.05). Herbicides such as rocket, Diazine, Cypermatrine glyphosate were being used by famers with rocket frequently used at Doho while glyphosate was the only one used at Kibimba. Majority of the farm workers at Kibimba (96.9%) reported to have always used protective devices when handling pesticides and the reverse was true for farm workers at Doho despite the training on pesticide usage. The study therefore recommends regular water quality monitoring and sensitization of farmworkers on the dangers of improper pesticide use.
- ItemRole of In-service Teacher Training as a Tool for the Student’s Performance in Selected Public Secondary Schools in Kisoro District(International Journal of Educational Policy Research and Review, 2022-01-03) Ponsiano, Mugarura; Fredrick, Ssempala; Sarah, NachuhaIn-service training is very important in the life of a learner and general performance of the school. Student achievement is linked to numerous factors, but quality teachers are one of the most important components of student success. If schoolteachers do not have the tools they need to teach students effectively; their students will not get quality education. The major purpose of the study was to assess the role of teacher In-service training as a tool for the student’s performance in selected public schools in Kisoro district. The study applied a mixed methods research design which involved both quantitative and qualitative methods to collect and analyze data. Quantitative data were collected using questionnaire while qualitative data, in-depth interviews. Study sample included the district inspector of schools and District Education Officer and 238 teachers in Kisoro district. It also positively contributes to teacher’s performance. Importantly also, in-service teacher training according to the findings motivates teachers for better results. To teach effectively, teachers need access to ongoing teacher professional development. This professional development enables teachers to improve their own education through seminars, workshops, and classes among others. The study therefore recommends that teachers should frequently be afforded study leaves or time off to do training. During this period, the school can hire part-time teachers so that normal learning is not disrupted. It’s important to appreciate that continual professional development gives teacher’s time to learn and implement new strategies.
- ItemA Survey of Avian Fauna in Kabale Municipality, South Western Uganda(Advances in Research, 2020) Sarah, Nachuha; Fortunate, TwagiramariaCollection of data on avifaunal diversity is a crucial component for monitoring the effects of habitat changes on biodiversity. A rapid cross sectional survey to document common bird species present in Kabale municipality was conducted over a period of 3 months. Birds were categorized into families and the Shannon–Weaver (H') diversity index and the abundance of all the species was calculated. A total of 1770 bird individuals consisting of 67 species, 34 families were recorded, with an overall species diversity of 3.41. The Grey Crowned Crane (Balearica regulorum) an endangered species and the Woolly–necked Stork (Ciconia episcopus) a vulnerable species were among the species recorded. The relatively high diversity is probably attributed to the presence of trees on farmland areas within the municipality. This combination seems to provide various food sources or nesting and perching grounds for the birds. Information generated by this study will serve as a benchmark for monitoring of changes in species diversity and composition over time. In addition, the list of birds will be useful to residents of the area and the many ecotourists who visit Kabale town.
- ItemSustainability of Paddy Rice Farming in the Conservation of Birds in Uganda Amidst a Growing Expansion of the Rice farming Industry.(Kabale University, 2022) Sarah, Nachuha; Twagiramaria, FortunateRice has become a cash crop in Uganda, making the rice agro-ecosystems a common feature in ecological landscapes. In this research, waterbird species diversity at three paddy rice growing schemes namely: Doho, Kibimba and Lukaya is collected and compared. A rapid cross-sectional survey was conducted at these 3 sites over a period of 3 months in which both quantitative and qualitative data were collected. This study was guided by the anthropogenic impacts hypothesis which proposes that humans have modified the ‘natural’ biodiversity patterns such that diversity is generally depressed in areas with long history of human occupation or intensive activities. Results of One-way ANOVA show significant variations in species diversity (P = 0.022) and abundance (P=0.04) across the sites. There was generally a low diversity at the sites. However, Doho rice scheme had the highest waterbird diversity (1.05±0.99), followed by Kibimba (0.09±0.05) while Lukaya had the least (0.07±0.02), and the reverse was true for waterbird abundance. Birds of international significance such as the Grey crowned Crane (Balearica regulorum) were more abundant at Lukaya Rice scheme than the other two. Kibimba and Doho rice rich schemes have been under rice cultivation for almost 5 decades while Lukaya rice fields are hardly a decade old. The findings are contrary to the hypothesis; most probably because rice fields are artificial habitats that are attractive to water birds only when there are farming activities going on. Out of the 150 farmers we interacted with, 120 (80%) mentioned that the Grey crowned Crane (Balearica regulorum) numbers had declined, mainly because of conversion of the natural wetland into rice paddies, moreover the birds on the paddies are also threatened by extensive use of pesticides and herbicides, including hunting by the local community members. There is need to introduce alternative income-generating activities and continuous sensitization of stakeholders on wise use of rice farms.