Browsing by Author "Okpanachi, Alfred Omachonu"
Now showing 1 - 5 of 5
Results Per Page
- ItemAntimalarial Combination Therapies Increase Gastric Ulcers Through an Imbalance of Basic Antioxidative‑Oxidative Enzymes in Male Wistar Rats.(Kabale University, 2020) Kalange, Muhamudu; Nansunga, Miriam; Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Kasolo, Josephine; Namulema, Jackline; Kasande Atusiimirwe, Jovile; Tiyo Ayikobua, Emanuel; Ssempijja, Fred; Munanura, Edson Ireeta; Matama, Kevin; Semuyaba, Ibrahim; Zirintunda, Gerald Gerald; Okpanachi, Alfred OmachonuObjective: Antimalarials are globally used against plasmodium infections, however, information on the safety of new antimalarial combination therapies on the gastric mucosa is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Artesunate-Amodiaquine and Artemether-Lumefantrine on ulcer induction. Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and major histological changes in male Wistar rats following ulcer induction using Indomethacin were investigated. Gastric ulcers were in four groups; Group I was administered Artesunate, group II received Artesunate- Amodiaquine, group III received Artemether-Lumefantrine, and group IV was a positive control (normal saline). GroupV was the negative control consisting of healthy rats. Results: Antimalarial combination therapies were associated with a high gastric ulcer index than a single antimalarial agent, Artesunate. In addition, levels of MDA were significantly higher in the combination of therapies while levels of GSH were lower in comparison to Artesunate and the negative control. Microscopically, antimalarial combination therapies were associated with severe inflammation and tissue damage than Artesunate in the gastric mucosa showing that antimalarial combination therapies exert their toxic effects through oxidative stress mechanisms, and this leads to cellular damage. Findings in this study demonstrate a need to revisit information on the pharmacodynamics of major circulating antimalarial agents in developing countries. Keywords: Antimalarials, Pharmacodynamics, Antimalarial Agents, Malaria, Developing Countries, Gastric Ulcers.
- ItemCalcium and s100a1 Protein Balance in the brain– Heart axis in Diabetic Male Wistar Rats.(2020) Keneth Iceland, Kasozi,; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy; Ninsiima, Herbert Izo; Kasolo, Josephine; Matama, Kevin; Safiriyu, Abass Alao; Owembabazi, Elna; Ssempijja, Fred; Okpanachi, Alfred Omachonu; Valladares, Miriela BetancourtCalcium deregulation in diabetes mellitus (DM) is central to the brain–heart axis pathology. This has led to the use of medical plants in complementary medicine such as Amaranthus hypochondriacus (GA). The objective of the study was to establish the effects of grain amaranth feed supplementation on calcium, s100al
- ItemCalcium and s100a1 Protein Balance in the brain– Heart axis in Diabetic Male Wistar Rats.(Kabale University, 2021) Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy; Ninsiima, Herbert Izo; Kasolo, Josephine; Matama, Kevin; Safiriyu, Abass Alao; Owembabazi, Elna; Ssempijja, Fred; Okpanachi, Alfred Omachonu; Valladares, Miriela BetancourtObjectives: Calcium deregulation in diabetes mellitus (DM) is central to the brain–heart axis pathology. This has led to the use of medical plants in complementary medicine such as Amaranthus hypochondriacus (GA). The objective of the study was to establish the effects of grain amaranth feed supplementation on calcium, s100al protein and antioxidant levels on the brain–heart axis in diabetic male Wistar rats. Methods: The study involved six groups (n=5) with DM being induced in 20 rats. To the diabetic rats, Group I received mixtard®, Group II was positive control, Groups III and IV received GA feed supplementation at 25 and 50%. In the nondiabetic rats (n=10), Group V received 50% grain amaranth while Group VI was the negative control. The brain and heart tissues were harvested after five weeks and processed using standard methods. Results: Grain amaranth feed supplementation led to improved calcium levels in DM as compared to the positive control. This also led to increased s100a1, antioxidant levels in the brain–heart axis during DM. This then protected the tissues against oxidative damage, thus preserving tissue function and structure. Conclusions: Grain amaranth’s actions on calcium signaling subsequently affected s100a1 protein levels, leading to improved tissue function in diabetes. Keywords: Calcium, T2DM, Ethnomedicine, Grain Amaranth.
- ItemCerebral Cortical Activity During Academic Stress Amongst Undergraduate Medical Students at Kampala International University (Uganda)(Kabale University, 2022) Mujinya, Regan; Kalange, Muhamudu; Ochieng, Juma John; Ninsiima, Herbert Izo; Eze, Ejike Daniel; Afodun, Adam Moyosore; Nabirumbi, Ritah; Sulaiman, Sheu Oluwadare; Kairania, Emmanuel; Echoru, Isaac; Okpanachi, Alfred Omachonu; Matama, Kevin; Asiimwe, Oscar Hilary; Nambuya, Grace; Usman, Ibe Michael; Obado, Osuwat Lawrence; Zirintunda, Gerald; Ssempijja, Fred; Nansunga, Miriam; Matovu, Henry; Ayikobua, Emmanuel Tiyo; Nganda, Ponsiano Ernest; Onanyang, David; Ekou, Justine; Musinguzi, Simon Peter; Ssimbwa, Godfrey; Keneth Iceland, KasoziBackground: Stress among medical students is related to their academic lifespan; however, information on brain health among medical students from developing countries continues to be scarce. The objective of this study was to establish perceived academic stress levels, assess the ability to cope with stress, and investigate its effects on the visual reaction time (VRT), audio reaction time (ART), and tactile reaction time (TRT) in the somatosensory cortex among medical students of Uganda. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among preclinical (n = 88) and clinical (n = 96) undergraduate medical students at Kampala International University Western Campus. A standard Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was used to categorize stress into low, moderate, and severe while the ability to cope with stress was categorized into below average, average, above average, and superior stresscoper (SS). Data on reaction time were acquired through VRT, ART, and TRT using the catch-a-ruler experiment, and this was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: This study shows that preclinical students are more stressed than clinical students (PSS prevalence for low stress = preclinical; clinical: 40, 60%). Moderate stress was 48.4 and 51.6% while high perceived stress was 75 and 25% among preclinical and clinical students. Among male and female students in preclinical years, higher TRT and VRT were found in clinical students showing that stress affects the tactile and visual cortical areas in the brain, although the VRT scores were only signiﬁcantly (P = 0.0123) poor in male students than female students in biomedical sciences. Also, highly stressed individuals had higher TRT and ART and low VRT. SS had high VRT and ART and low TRT in preclinical students, demonstrating the importance of the visual cortex in stress plasticity. Multiple regression showed a close relationship between PSS, ability to cope with stress, age, and educational level (P < 0.05), demonstrating the importance of social and psychological support, especially in the biomedical sciences. Conclusion: Preclinical students suffer more from stress and are poorer SS than clinical students. This strongly impairs their cortical regions in the brain, thus affecting their academic productivity. Keywords:Brain Stress, Medical Education, Cerebral Cortex, Brains, Africans, Reaction Time (RT), Academic Stress
- ItemLow Concentrations of Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) are Safe in Male Drosophila Melanogaster.(Kabale University, 2018) Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Namubiru, Sarah; Kiconco, Oliver; Kinyi, Hellen Wambui; Ssempijja, Fred; Chukwujekwu Ezeonwumelu, Joseph Obiezu; Ninsiima, Herbert Izo; Okpanachi, Alfred OmachonuObjective: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) has been marred by a lot of controversy on its safety. In a majority of experimental studies, administration of the compound has been parenteral, and yet little is known about MSG safety consumed as a food supplement. In this study, we assessed the effects of low concentrations of MSG on the activity of hydrogen scavenging, catalase activity and climbing as well as lifespan in male Drosophila melanogaster over a 30 days period since this has been sparsely studied. Results: No significant differences were associated with MSG at 5%, 1%, 0.2%, 0.04% on hydrogen peroxide scavenging,negative geotaxis and lifespan in W1118 male D. melanogaster. Significant differences were found in 5% MSG on catalase activity, showing that high MSG concentrations would affect tissue health in male D. melanogaster. MSG consumed as a food supplement would be safe at concentrations below 5% MSG. Keywords: Drosophila Melanogaster, MSG Safety, MSG Toxicity, Catalase Activity.