Browsing by Author "Ninsiima, Herbert Izo"
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- ItemCalcium and s100a1 Protein Balance in the brain– Heart axis in Diabetic Male Wistar Rats.(2020) Keneth Iceland, Kasozi,; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy; Ninsiima, Herbert Izo; Kasolo, Josephine; Matama, Kevin; Safiriyu, Abass Alao; Owembabazi, Elna; Ssempijja, Fred; Okpanachi, Alfred Omachonu; Valladares, Miriela BetancourtCalcium deregulation in diabetes mellitus (DM) is central to the brain–heart axis pathology. This has led to the use of medical plants in complementary medicine such as Amaranthus hypochondriacus (GA). The objective of the study was to establish the effects of grain amaranth feed supplementation on calcium, s100al
- ItemCalcium and s100a1 Protein Balance in the brain– Heart axis in Diabetic Male Wistar Rats.(Kabale University, 2021) Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy; Ninsiima, Herbert Izo; Kasolo, Josephine; Matama, Kevin; Safiriyu, Abass Alao; Owembabazi, Elna; Ssempijja, Fred; Okpanachi, Alfred Omachonu; Valladares, Miriela BetancourtObjectives: Calcium deregulation in diabetes mellitus (DM) is central to the brain–heart axis pathology. This has led to the use of medical plants in complementary medicine such as Amaranthus hypochondriacus (GA). The objective of the study was to establish the effects of grain amaranth feed supplementation on calcium, s100al protein and antioxidant levels on the brain–heart axis in diabetic male Wistar rats. Methods: The study involved six groups (n=5) with DM being induced in 20 rats. To the diabetic rats, Group I received mixtard®, Group II was positive control, Groups III and IV received GA feed supplementation at 25 and 50%. In the nondiabetic rats (n=10), Group V received 50% grain amaranth while Group VI was the negative control. The brain and heart tissues were harvested after five weeks and processed using standard methods. Results: Grain amaranth feed supplementation led to improved calcium levels in DM as compared to the positive control. This also led to increased s100a1, antioxidant levels in the brain–heart axis during DM. This then protected the tissues against oxidative damage, thus preserving tissue function and structure. Conclusions: Grain amaranth’s actions on calcium signaling subsequently affected s100a1 protein levels, leading to improved tissue function in diabetes. Keywords: Calcium, T2DM, Ethnomedicine, Grain Amaranth.
- ItemCerebral Cortical Activity During Academic Stress Amongst Undergraduate Medical Students at Kampala International University (Uganda)(Kabale University, 2022) Mujinya, Regan; Kalange, Muhamudu; Ochieng, Juma John; Ninsiima, Herbert Izo; Eze, Ejike Daniel; Afodun, Adam Moyosore; Nabirumbi, Ritah; Sulaiman, Sheu Oluwadare; Kairania, Emmanuel; Echoru, Isaac; Okpanachi, Alfred Omachonu; Matama, Kevin; Asiimwe, Oscar Hilary; Nambuya, Grace; Usman, Ibe Michael; Obado, Osuwat Lawrence; Zirintunda, Gerald; Ssempijja, Fred; Nansunga, Miriam; Matovu, Henry; Ayikobua, Emmanuel Tiyo; Nganda, Ponsiano Ernest; Onanyang, David; Ekou, Justine; Musinguzi, Simon Peter; Ssimbwa, Godfrey; Keneth Iceland, KasoziBackground: Stress among medical students is related to their academic lifespan; however, information on brain health among medical students from developing countries continues to be scarce. The objective of this study was to establish perceived academic stress levels, assess the ability to cope with stress, and investigate its effects on the visual reaction time (VRT), audio reaction time (ART), and tactile reaction time (TRT) in the somatosensory cortex among medical students of Uganda. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among preclinical (n = 88) and clinical (n = 96) undergraduate medical students at Kampala International University Western Campus. A standard Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was used to categorize stress into low, moderate, and severe while the ability to cope with stress was categorized into below average, average, above average, and superior stresscoper (SS). Data on reaction time were acquired through VRT, ART, and TRT using the catch-a-ruler experiment, and this was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: This study shows that preclinical students are more stressed than clinical students (PSS prevalence for low stress = preclinical; clinical: 40, 60%). Moderate stress was 48.4 and 51.6% while high perceived stress was 75 and 25% among preclinical and clinical students. Among male and female students in preclinical years, higher TRT and VRT were found in clinical students showing that stress affects the tactile and visual cortical areas in the brain, although the VRT scores were only signiﬁcantly (P = 0.0123) poor in male students than female students in biomedical sciences. Also, highly stressed individuals had higher TRT and ART and low VRT. SS had high VRT and ART and low TRT in preclinical students, demonstrating the importance of the visual cortex in stress plasticity. Multiple regression showed a close relationship between PSS, ability to cope with stress, age, and educational level (P < 0.05), demonstrating the importance of social and psychological support, especially in the biomedical sciences. Conclusion: Preclinical students suffer more from stress and are poorer SS than clinical students. This strongly impairs their cortical regions in the brain, thus affecting their academic productivity. Keywords:Brain Stress, Medical Education, Cerebral Cortex, Brains, Africans, Reaction Time (RT), Academic Stress
- ItemGrain Amaranth Is Associated with Improved Hepatic and Renal Calcium Metabolism in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus of Male Wistar Rats(Kabale University, 2018) Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Namubiru, Sarah; Safiriyu, Abass Alao; Ninsiima, Herbert Izo; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy; Namayanja, Monica; Valladares, Miriela BetancourtDysregulation of calcium signaling is a hallmark of diabetes mellitus (DM) and grain amaranth (AG) has antidiabetic properties. Information on the mechanism of action of AG on blood, renal, and hepatic tissues is sparse, although it continues to be an important alternative medicinal plant in several developing countries. The objective of the study was to determine key changes in calcium levels and s100a1 protein levels and antioxidant and histopathologic changes in blood, renal, and hepatic tissues of male diabetic Wistar rats. Materials and Methods. This was an experimental study in which 30 male Wistar rats were kept for 5 weeks (6 groups, N =5). Groups 1-IV had T2DM induced using Nicotinamide and Streptozotocin: Group I, Mixtard ; group II, positive control; group III, 25% AG; group IV, 50% AG. Furthermore, group V consisted of normal rats given 50% GA and group VI was negative control. Blood, renal, and hepatic tissues were collected and analyzed for calcium, s100a1 protein levels, and antioxidant and histopathological changes. Results andDiscussion. Inblood, renal, andhepatic tissue, calciumand s100a1 levelswere low during T2DMand these increased following AG supplementation.This was important for improved metabolic processes, thus leading to the lowmalondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the tissues. Efficient antioxidant status was important for improved calciumsignaling mechanisms, thus leading to improved tissue function and protection demonstrating the importance of AG as an alternativemedicinal source through the calciumsignaling pathway. Conclusion. Grain amaranth exerts its antidiabetic properties through improved calcium homeostasis in blood, kidney, and liver.
- ItemLow Concentrations of Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) are Safe in Male Drosophila Melanogaster.(Kabale University, 2018) Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Namubiru, Sarah; Kiconco, Oliver; Kinyi, Hellen Wambui; Ssempijja, Fred; Chukwujekwu Ezeonwumelu, Joseph Obiezu; Ninsiima, Herbert Izo; Okpanachi, Alfred OmachonuObjective: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) has been marred by a lot of controversy on its safety. In a majority of experimental studies, administration of the compound has been parenteral, and yet little is known about MSG safety consumed as a food supplement. In this study, we assessed the effects of low concentrations of MSG on the activity of hydrogen scavenging, catalase activity and climbing as well as lifespan in male Drosophila melanogaster over a 30 days period since this has been sparsely studied. Results: No significant differences were associated with MSG at 5%, 1%, 0.2%, 0.04% on hydrogen peroxide scavenging,negative geotaxis and lifespan in W1118 male D. melanogaster. Significant differences were found in 5% MSG on catalase activity, showing that high MSG concentrations would affect tissue health in male D. melanogaster. MSG consumed as a food supplement would be safe at concentrations below 5% MSG. Keywords: Drosophila Melanogaster, MSG Safety, MSG Toxicity, Catalase Activity.
- ItemA study on Visual, Audio and Tactile Reaction Time Among Medical Students at Kampala International University in Uganda.(Kabale University, 2018) Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Mbiydzneyuy, Ngala Elvis; Namubiru, Sarah; Safiriyu, Abass Alao; Sulaiman, Sheu Oluwadare; Okpanachi, Alfred O.; Ninsiima, Herbert IzoBackground: Reaction time (RT) is an indicator of neural activity, however, its variation due to visual (VRT), audio (ART) and tactile (TRT) in African medical students has not been investigated. The aim of the study was to determine relationships between VRT, ART and TRT amongst medical students in Uganda. Materials and methods: This was a cross sectional study, the body mass index (BMI) and RT (i.e. VRT, ART and TRT) were determined using weighing scale with standiometer and the catch a ruler experiment respectively. A questionnaire was administered to collect information on participant’s lifestyle patterns and analysis was done using SPSS Version 20. Results: The mean (± SEM) VRT, ART and TRT in the study were found to be 0.148 ± 0.002s, 0.141 ± 0.002s and 0.139 ± 0.003s respectively. A strong correlation between TRT and ART was found to exist in the youthful Ugandan medical student’s population. Furthermore, significant differences in ART and VRT were observed with sex, although these were absent amongst preclinical and clinical students, showing the importance of sex in RT. Conclusion: The low VRT and ART in Ugandan medical students is indicative of a healthy somatosensory connectivity, thus of academic importance. Keywords: Reaction Time, Cognitive Performance, Neural Health, Medical Education.
- ItemUniversity Lecturers and Students Could Help in Community Education About SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Uganda.(Kabale University, 2020) Echoru, Isaac; Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Usman, Ibe Michael; Mukenya Mutuku, Irene; Ssebuufu4, Robinson; Decanar Ajambo, Patricia; Ssempijja, Fred; Mujinya, Regan; Matama, Kevin; Musoke, Grace Henry; Tiyo Ayikobua, Emmanuel; Ninsiima, Herbert Izo; Dare, Samuel Sunday; Ejike, Daniel Eze; Eriya Bukenya, Edmund; Keyune Nambatya, Grace; Ewan, MacLeod; Welburn, Susan ChristinaBac kground: The World Health Organization has placed a lot of attention on vulnerable communities of Africa due to their chronically weak health care systems. Recent findings from Uganda show that medical staff members have sufficient knowledge but poor attitudes toward coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitudes, and preparedness/practices of lecturers and students in the fight against COVID-19. Method: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of 103 lecturers and students both men and women of age group 18 to 69 years in western Uganda. Data were obtained through a pretested questionnaire availed online. Results : Knowledge on COVID-19 symptoms was highest in this order: fever > dry cough > difficulty breathing > fatigue > headache with no significant differences between lecturers and students. Knowledge of participants on transmission of COVID-19 was highest in the order of cough drops > contaminated surfaces > person-to-person contact > asymptomatic persons > airborne > zoonotic with no significant differences among lecturers and students. Lecturers and students were all willing to continue using personal protective equipment like masks, and personal practices such as covering the mouth while sneezing and coughing, no handshaking, and washing of hands with no significant differences in the responses. The positive attitudes that COVID-19 could kill, anyone can get COVID-19, and willing to abide by the set regulations against the pandemic showed personal concerns and desired efforts against COVID-19. Conclusion: The study identifies lecturers and students as potential stakeholders in the fight against community transmission of COVID-19. Keywords: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, coronavirus, community education, lecturers, students, western Uganda