Browsing by Author "Namubiru, Sarah"
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- ItemGrain Amaranth Is Associated with Improved Hepatic and Renal Calcium Metabolism in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus of Male Wistar Rats(Kabale University, 2018) Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Namubiru, Sarah; Safiriyu, Abass Alao; Ninsiima, Herbert Izo; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy; Namayanja, Monica; Valladares, Miriela BetancourtDysregulation of calcium signaling is a hallmark of diabetes mellitus (DM) and grain amaranth (AG) has antidiabetic properties. Information on the mechanism of action of AG on blood, renal, and hepatic tissues is sparse, although it continues to be an important alternative medicinal plant in several developing countries. The objective of the study was to determine key changes in calcium levels and s100a1 protein levels and antioxidant and histopathologic changes in blood, renal, and hepatic tissues of male diabetic Wistar rats. Materials and Methods. This was an experimental study in which 30 male Wistar rats were kept for 5 weeks (6 groups, N =5). Groups 1-IV had T2DM induced using Nicotinamide and Streptozotocin: Group I, Mixtard ; group II, positive control; group III, 25% AG; group IV, 50% AG. Furthermore, group V consisted of normal rats given 50% GA and group VI was negative control. Blood, renal, and hepatic tissues were collected and analyzed for calcium, s100a1 protein levels, and antioxidant and histopathological changes. Results andDiscussion. Inblood, renal, andhepatic tissue, calciumand s100a1 levelswere low during T2DMand these increased following AG supplementation.This was important for improved metabolic processes, thus leading to the lowmalondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the tissues. Efficient antioxidant status was important for improved calciumsignaling mechanisms, thus leading to improved tissue function and protection demonstrating the importance of AG as an alternativemedicinal source through the calciumsignaling pathway. Conclusion. Grain amaranth exerts its antidiabetic properties through improved calcium homeostasis in blood, kidney, and liver.
- ItemLow Concentrations of Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) are Safe in Male Drosophila Melanogaster.(Kabale University, 2018) Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Namubiru, Sarah; Kiconco, Oliver; Kinyi, Hellen Wambui; Ssempijja, Fred; Chukwujekwu Ezeonwumelu, Joseph Obiezu; Ninsiima, Herbert Izo; Okpanachi, Alfred OmachonuObjective: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) has been marred by a lot of controversy on its safety. In a majority of experimental studies, administration of the compound has been parenteral, and yet little is known about MSG safety consumed as a food supplement. In this study, we assessed the effects of low concentrations of MSG on the activity of hydrogen scavenging, catalase activity and climbing as well as lifespan in male Drosophila melanogaster over a 30 days period since this has been sparsely studied. Results: No significant differences were associated with MSG at 5%, 1%, 0.2%, 0.04% on hydrogen peroxide scavenging,negative geotaxis and lifespan in W1118 male D. melanogaster. Significant differences were found in 5% MSG on catalase activity, showing that high MSG concentrations would affect tissue health in male D. melanogaster. MSG consumed as a food supplement would be safe at concentrations below 5% MSG. Keywords: Drosophila Melanogaster, MSG Safety, MSG Toxicity, Catalase Activity.
- ItemA study on Visual, Audio and Tactile Reaction Time Among Medical Students at Kampala International University in Uganda.(Kabale University, 2018) Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Mbiydzneyuy, Ngala Elvis; Namubiru, Sarah; Safiriyu, Abass Alao; Sulaiman, Sheu Oluwadare; Okpanachi, Alfred O.; Ninsiima, Herbert IzoBackground: Reaction time (RT) is an indicator of neural activity, however, its variation due to visual (VRT), audio (ART) and tactile (TRT) in African medical students has not been investigated. The aim of the study was to determine relationships between VRT, ART and TRT amongst medical students in Uganda. Materials and methods: This was a cross sectional study, the body mass index (BMI) and RT (i.e. VRT, ART and TRT) were determined using weighing scale with standiometer and the catch a ruler experiment respectively. A questionnaire was administered to collect information on participant’s lifestyle patterns and analysis was done using SPSS Version 20. Results: The mean (± SEM) VRT, ART and TRT in the study were found to be 0.148 ± 0.002s, 0.141 ± 0.002s and 0.139 ± 0.003s respectively. A strong correlation between TRT and ART was found to exist in the youthful Ugandan medical student’s population. Furthermore, significant differences in ART and VRT were observed with sex, although these were absent amongst preclinical and clinical students, showing the importance of sex in RT. Conclusion: The low VRT and ART in Ugandan medical students is indicative of a healthy somatosensory connectivity, thus of academic importance. Keywords: Reaction Time, Cognitive Performance, Neural Health, Medical Education.