Browsing by Author "Herbert Izo, Ninsiima"
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- ItemAn analysis of heavy metals contamination and estimating the daily intakes of vegetables from Uganda(Toxicology Research and Application, 2021) Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Eric Oloya, Otim; Herbert Izo, Ninsiima; Gerald, Zirintunda; Andrew, Tamale; Justin, Ekou; Grace Henry, Musoke; Robert, Muyinda; Kevin, Matama; Regan, Mujinya; Henry, Matovu; Fred, Ssempijja; Ejike, Daniel Eze; Mauryn, Atino; Bede, Udechukwu; Ronald, Kayima; Patrick, Etiang; Emmanuel Tiyo, Ayikobua; Stellamaris, Kembabazi; Ibe Michael, Usman; Sheu Oluwadare, Sulaiman; Phyllis Candy, Natabo; Grace Nambatya, Kyeyune; Gaber El-Saber, Batiha; Ochan, OtimEnvironmental contamination with elevated levels of copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr 6þ), cadmium (Cd), and nickel (Ni)—all states of which are found in Uganda—raises health risk to the public. Pb, Cr 6þ, Cd, and Ni for instance are generally considered nonessential to cellular functions, notwithstanding the importance of the oxidative state of the metals in bioavailability. As such, we aimed in this study (i) to evaluate heavy metal concentrations in four vegetables from a typical open-air market in Uganda, (ii) to assess the safety of consuming these vegetables against the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended limits of heavy metals consumption, and (iii) to formulate a model of estimated daily intake (EDI) among consumers in the country. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in five georeferenced markets of Bushenyi district in January 2020. Amaranthus, cabbages, scarlet eggplants, and tomatoes were collected from open markets, processed, and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Modeled EDI, principal component (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were conducted to identify relationships in the samples. Results: The levels of essential elements in the four vegetables were found to fall from Co > Cu > Fe > Zn. Those of non-essential metals were significantly higher and followed the pattern Cd > Cr > Pb > Ni. The highest EDI values were those of Cu in scarlet eggplants, Zn in amaranthus, Fe in amaranthus, Co in amaranthus, Pb in cabbages, total Cr in scarlet eggplant, Cd in cabbages and tomatoes, and Ni in cabbages. In comparison to international limits, EDIs for Zn, Cu, Co and Fe were low while Ni in cabbages were high. PCA showed high variations in scarlet eggplant and amaranthus. The study vegetables were found to be related with each other, not according to the location of the markets from where they were obtained, but according to their species by CA. Conclusion: The presence of non-essential elements above WHO limits raises policy challenges for the consumption and marketing of vegetables in the study area. Furthermore, low EDIs of essential elements in the vegetables create demand for nutritious foods to promote healthy communities
- ItemA Descriptive-Multivariate Analysis of Community Knowledge, Confidence, and Trust in COVID-19 Clinical Trials among Healthcare Workers in Uganda(MDPI., 2021-03-12) Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Anne, Laudisoit; Lawrence Obado, Osuwat; Gaber El-Saber, Batiha; Naif E. Al, Omairi; Eric, Aigbogun; Herbert Izo, Ninsiima; Ibe Michael, Usman; Lisa M., DeTora; Ewan Thomas, MacLeod; Halima, Nalugo; Francis P., Crawley; Barbara E., Bierer; Daniel Chans, Mwandah; Charles Drago, Kato; Kenedy, Kiyimba; Emmanuel Tiyo, Ayikobua; Linda, Lillian; Kevin, Matama; Shui Ching, Nelly Mak; David, Onanyang; Theophilus, Pius; Linda, Lillian; Kevin, Matama; Shui Ching, Nelly Mak; David, Onanyang; Theophilus, Pius; David Paul, Nalumenya; Robinson, Ssebuufu; Nina Olivia, Rugambwa; Grace Henry, Musoke; Kevin, Bardosh; Juma John, Ochieng; Fred, Ssempijja; Patrick, Kyamanywa; Gabriel, Tumwine; Khalid J., Alzahrani; Susan Christina, WelburnBackground—misinformation and mistrust often undermines community vaccine uptake, yet information in rural communities, especially of developing countries, is scarce. This study aimed to identify major challenges associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine clinical trials among healthcare workers and staff in Uganda. Methods—a rapid exploratory survey was conducted over 5 weeks among 260 respondents (66% male) from healthcare centers across the country using an online questionnaire. Twenty-seven questions assessed knowledge, confidence, and trust scores on COVID-19 vaccine clinical trials from participants in 46 districts in Uganda. Results—we found low levels of knowledge (i.e., confusing COVID-19 with Ebola) with males being more informed than females (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 0.7–3.0), and mistrust associated with policy decisions to promote herbal treatments in Uganda and the rushed international clinical trials, highlighting challenges for the upcoming Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccinations. Knowledge, confidence and trust scores were higher among the least educated (certificate vs. bachelor degree holders). We also found a high level of skepticism and possible community resistance to DNA recombinant vaccines, such as the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine. Preference for herbal treatments (38/260; 14.6%, 95% CI: 10.7–19.3) currently being promoted by the Ugandan government raises major policy concerns. High fear and mistrust for COVID-19 vaccine clinical trials was more common among wealthier participants and more affluent regions of the country. Conclusion—our study found that knowledge, confidence, and trust in COVID-19 vaccines was low among healthcare workers in Uganda, especially those with higher wealth and educational status. There is a need to increase transparency and inclusive participation to address these issues before new trials of COVID-19 vaccines are initiated
- ItemGreen tea silver nanoparticles improve physiological motor and cognitive function in BALB/c mice during inflammation(2023) Herbert Izo, Ninsiima; Ejike, Daniel Eze; Kenneth, Ssekatawa; Halima, Nalugo; Caroline, Asekenye; David, Onanyang; Edson Ireeta, Munanura; Moses, Ariong; Kevin, Matama; Gerald, Zirintunda; Ngala Elvis, Mbiydzenyuy; Fred, Ssempijja; Adam Moyosore, Afodun; Ibe Michael, Usman; Oscar Hilary, Asiimwe; Julius, Tibyangye; Keneth Iceland, KasoziInformation on the basic changes associated with green tea small molecules in acute inflammation is deficient. The purpose of the study was to characterize and establish the effects of green tea silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) following inflammation in BALB/c male mice. In this study, green tea silver nitrate nanoparticles were characterized and the extract were made up to constitute high (100%), medium (10%), and low (1%) concentrations for administration. Acute inflam- mation was induced in groups I–V of the experimental rodents by injecting 0.5 ml/kg of fresh egg albumin on the subplantar surface of the right hind paw and animals were monitored for 36 h. Group I–III were administered 100%, 10%, 1% green tea nanoparticles extract while group IV was given diclofenac. Group V was the positive control while group VI was the negative control that received the vehicle. Paw edema was measured at a 2 h interval for 3 days, while the pain was assessed by measuring the locomotion activity using the voluntary wheel running and the anxiety- like behavior. Hypersensitivity was measured through the temperature sensation experiment and a non-linear regression analysis was done. Here, synthesized green tea AgNPs registered anabsorbance band at 460 nm, phytochemicals due to presence of organic functional groups of O––C––O of oxycarbons, of C––C of a conjugate alkene, C––O of a stretching bond of a secondary alcohol. The silver green tea nanoparticles were spherical, covered by a slimy layer, capped and stable. Green tea AgNPs significantly decreased temperature hypersensitivity in BALB/c male mice and this demonstrated their protective effects. Low concentrations of green tea nanoparticles inhibited edema thus mimicking effects of diclofenac, however, the percentage of inhibition was highest in medium and high silver-tea nanoparticles concentrations demonstration the impor- tance of concentration in therapeutics. Anxiety was lowest in BALB/c male mice treated with high concentrations of silver green tea nanoparticles, and this led to increased locomotory activity in mice. Green tea AgNPs have strong anti-inflammatory effects at high concentrations. Concen- trations of green tea AgNPs modulated basic sensory and motor behaviors in BALB/c male mice demonstrating their importance in complementary and integrative medical practice.
- ItemHigh-Prevalence Stunting in Preschool Children (1–5 Years) Attending Selected Health Centers in a Food Rich Area-Bushenyi District Southwestern Uganda(Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2021) Douglas, Mugarura; Herbert Izo, Ninsiima; Hellen, Kinyi; Ejike, Daniel Eze; Sam, Tumwesigire; Andrew, Ndamira+e prevalence of stunting among children in Uganda and Sub-Saharan Africa is still high, and if Uganda is to achieve the food- related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), it must urgently invest in improving nutrition and sanitation. In a food rich area like Bushenyi, chronic undernutrition could be due to several other factors than mere scarcity of food. &e Objective(s). +is study was carried out to determine the prevalence and socioclinical factors responsible for chronic undernutrition (stunting) among preschool children aged 1–5 years in selected Health facilities in Bushenyi district. Methodology. +is was a cross-sectional study assessing the prevalence of stunting and its associated factors among children aged 1–5 years attending selected health centers in Bushenyi District. Data was collected using a pretested questionnaire, taking anthropometric measurements (height/length), and stool analysis for eggs of soil-transmitted helminthes. Prevalence of stunting was presented as percentages. Logistic regression with adjusted prevalence ratio was performed to test the association between the sociodemographic and clinical factors and stunting at bivariate levels of analysis. Results. Most of the children were female, with a median age of 2.1 years and resided in semiurban areas of Bushenyi with their parents. Prevalence of stunting was 89.3%. Only 10.7% of the children were infested with soil-transmitted helminthes. Children likely to be stunted were those who drank unboiled water and were exclusively breastfed. Conclusion. +ere is a high prevalence of chronic malnutrition in Bushenyi district associated with parents’/care takers’ low level of knowledge
- ItemSynergistic action of propolis with levodopa in the management of Parkinsonism in Drosophila melanogaster(Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine, 2020) Herbert Izo, Ninsiima; Emmanuel Tiyo, Ayikobua; Josephine, Kasolo; Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Ejike, Daniel EzeBackground: The Phosphatase and tensin-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1B9) mutant for Drosophila melanogaster is a key tool that has been used in assessing the pathology of Parkinsonism and its possible remedy. This research was targeted toward determining the effects of ethanolic extract of propolis, with levodopa therapy in the management of Parkinsonism. Method: The PINK1B9 flies were divided into groups and fed with the different treatment doses of ethanoic extract of propolis. The treatment groups were subjected to 21 days of administration of propolis and the levodopa at different doses after which percentage climbing index, antioxidant activity and lifespan studies were done. Results: Propolis alone improved motor activity, antioxidant and lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster than in PINK1 flies. Propolis in combination with levodopa significantly (P<0.05) improved physiological parameters at higher than lower concentrations in Parkinsonism Drosophila melanogaster demonstrating its importance in managing side effects associated with levodopa. Conclusion: Propolis is a novel candidate as an alternative and integrative medicinal option to use in the management of Parkinsonism in both animals and humans at higher concentrations.