Browsing by Author "Hannington, Ngabirano"
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- ItemEffects of Seasonal Variations in Physical Parameters on Quality of Gravity Flow Water in Kyanamira Sub-County, Kabale District, Uganda(Scientific Research Publishing, 2016) Hannington, Ngabirano; Denis, Byamugisha; Emmanuel, NtambiThe effect of seasonal variations in physical parameters on quality of gravity flow water was investigated in Kyanamira Sub-County, Kabale District, Uganda. The seasonal variations in the physical parameters (pH, temperature, electrical conductivity (EC), turbidity, colour, total dissolved solids (TDS), and total suspended solids (TSS)) were determined during wet and dry seasons. Composite samples from gravity flow water sources were collected monthly from March to August, 2014 and then analyzed. Temperature was measured using thermometer; pH, EC and TDS were determined using a multimeter, turbidity, colour and total suspended solids were determined by spectrophotometric method. TDS, pH and temperature were the most contributing parameters to water quality variations in both seasons. The mean pH values varied between 3.78 - 4.84 from March to August, 2014 at all study sites. These pH values were consistently below the WHO permissible range of 6.5 - 8.5. Similarly, total suspended solids varied between 0.66 - 2.17 mg∙L−1 and were well above the recommended WHO limit of zero mg∙L−1 at all study sites. Turbidity mean values varied between 0.83 - 3.7 NTU and were outside the recommended limits of 3 NTU at Kigata (3.7 NTU) only. Temperatures (20.3˚C - 21.15˚C) for all the study sites were within the recommended limit of 20˚C - 30˚C in water for domestic purposes. The mean values of physical parameters for the wet season were: temperature (21.12˚C), colour (12.5 PtCoU), turbidity (3.4 NTU), TDS (76.76 mg∙L−1), TSS (2.13 mg∙L−1), pH (4.19) and EC (152.7 μS∙cm−1) were different from those of the dry season (temperature (20.99˚C), colour (0.93 PtCoU), turbidity (0.53 NTU), TDS (77.33 mg∙L−1), TSS (0.67 mg∙L−1), pH (4.86) and EC (158.65 μS∙cm−1). Basing on these findings above, it was evident to justify discouraging the use of gravity flow water at these study sites for domestic purposes without proper treatment.
- ItemPesticide residues in vegetables produced in rural south-western Uganda(Elsevier, 2021) Hannington, Ngabirano; Grace, BirungiThis study investigated seven pesticides in vegetables produced in rural South-western Uganda to determine their suitability for human consumption. Pesticide residue concentrations (ppm) were determined using QuEChERS method, LC–MS/MS, GC–MS/MS and UV–Vis. Cypermethrin, dimethoate, metalaxyl, profenofos, malathion, dichlorvos and mancozeb concentrations detected in sprayed samples ranged between 0.00403 and 0.05350, 0.17478–62.60874, 0.12890–3.55681, 0.00107–0.59722, 0.03144–0.63328, 0.00240–0.34102 and 0.00001–0.00244, respectively. The residues exceeded MRLs in sprayed samples (59.52%), unsprayed samples (18%) and market samples (8%). The quality index of the market vegetables was found to be optimal (14.29%), good (75%), adequate (3.57%) and inadequate (14.29%). Pesticide residues may lower food quality and pose risk to human health. Therefore, regulation and monitoring pesticide residues in vegetables produced in southwestern Uganda in order to avoid harmful effects on human health would be paramount.
- ItemPesticide use in vegetable production in rural Uganda - A case study of Kabale District, South western Uganda(Academic Journals, 2020) Hannington, Ngabirano; Grace, BirungiA study to investigate commonly grown vegetables, commonly used pesticides, and pesticide use practices was conducted in Kabale District, in South-western Uganda. This is because indiscriminate pesticide use and poor application practices can leave pesticide residues in food rendering it unsafe for consumption. The study revealed extensive pesticide application in Brassica oleracea; var. capitata (cabbage), Brassica oleracea; var. botrytis (cauliflower), Solanum lycopersicum, (tomato) and Beta vulgaris (beet root). Information obtained using interviews revealed that 16.5% of the traders in Kabale Municipality sold pesticides and 70% of the farmers in the major vegetable growing subcounties of Kaharo, Kyanamira and Kamuganguzi sprayed their vegetables with pesticides. Only 18% of the interviewed farmers could interpret instructions on pesticide container or bag labels correctly. All farmers (100%) had never attended any training on pesticide use. Cypermethrin, dimethoate, dichlorvos, metalaxyl, profenofos, malathion and mancozeb were mentioned as commonly used pesticides in vegetables grown in the district. Some of the farmers (42%) used mixed different pesticides in the vegetables. Limited knowledge about pesticide application, inability to interpret instructions, non-observance of pre-harvest intervals, mixing pesticides and lack of training on pesticide use contribute to pesticide use malpractices which may put farmers’ health at risk and reduce food quality. Therefore, there is need to address the identified knowledge gaps on safer pesticide application in order to attain safe agricultural productivity for sustainable food security, safeguarding human health and community development in Kabale District, Uganda.
- ItemTemporal and Spatial Seasonal Variations in Quality of Gravity Flow Water in Kyanamira Sub-County, Kabale District, Uganda(Scientific Research Publishing, 2017) Hannington, Ngabirano; Denis, Byamugisha; Emmanuel, NtambiThe study was designed to investigate temporal and spatial seasonal variations in quality properties of gravity flow water samples collected from Kigata, Kacuro, Kihanga, Kitibya and Kanjobe located in Kyanamira Sub-County, Kabale District, Uganda. Physical, chemical and biological parameters such as pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, turbidity, colour and total suspended solids, total hardness, total alkalinity, chloride, fluoride, nitrates-N, nitrites-N, ammonium-N, sulphates, total phosphate, sodium, calcium, magnesium and some heavy metals were analyzed. Total iron, lead, chromium, copper, zinc, manganese and cadmium were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Two of the basic biological parameters for drinking water such as faecal coliforms and salmonella were analyzed by incubation followed by counting colony forming units (CFUs). Statistical presentations of data including cluster analysis, dendrograms and principal component analysis were used with the assistance of PAST software. Temperature, pH, TDS dissolved oxygen, cations, anions (chemical parameters) and salmonella, faecal coliforms were the major contributing parameters to gravity flow water’s quality variations during both seasons. Values of pH ranged between 3.78 and 4.84 from March to August in all study sites and they were consistently below the WHO permissible pH range of 6.5 - 8.5. Total suspended solids ranged between 0.66 and 2.17 mg·L−1 and were above the recommended WHO limit of zero value in all study sites. Salmonella and faecal coliforms colonies were present in scaring numbers in the wet season. In March, salmonella counts at Kacuro (14 CFU) and Kanjobe (128 CFU) while faecal coliforms counts at Kacuro (515 CFU) and Kanjobe (228 CFU). The findings of this study call for special attention when using gravity flow water.