Browsing by Author "Ezera, Agwu"
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- ItemAnalgesic Appraisal of Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae) Leaf Extracts Used in Management of Oral Lesion Pain in HIV/AIDS Patients in Rodents(Scientific Research Publishing Inc., 2018-06-29) Joseph Obiezu, Chukwujekwu Ezeonwumelu; Muhammad, Ntale; Steve, Okwudili Ogbonnia; Ezera, Agwu; Julius, Kihdze Tanayen; Ahmed, Adebowale Adedeji; Okonkwo, Chukwudi Onyeka; Ambrose, Amamchukwu Akunne; Jennifer, Chibuogwu Ebosie; Frederick, ByarugabaOral lesions, diarrhoea, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, tuberculosis and urinary tract infections are some of the opportunistic infections (OIs) which arise when the CD4 cells of the HIV/AIDS patient fall below 200 cells/mm3. HIV/AIDS infection complications include tissue damage from oral lesions accompanied with pains. Pain is a disagreeable sensory and sensitive experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. This condition requires immediate treatment with analgesics and antibiotics. However, the inability of rural dwellers to afford readily available drugs is a consequence for using herbs like Bidens pilosa whose local usefulness in the management of oral lesions of HIV/AIDS has not been proven scientifically. Therefore, the objective of this study was to provide the scientific basis in rats for the traditional healers’ use of Bidens pilosa leaves’ extracts in managing pain associated with oral lesions of HIV/AIDS patients in South Western Uganda. Assessment of the analgesic effects of Bidens pilosa was conducted using acetic acid in mice, formalin-induced pain and tail flick methods in rats. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaves of Bidens pilosa produced statistically significant dose dependent inhibition of acetic acid induced pain, non dose dependent pain reduction in formalin induced pain, (p < 0.05; student t-test) and non dose dependent tail withdrawal pattern (p < 0.05, Multivariate ANOVA test). Hence, we conclude that extracts of Bidens pilosa have an analgesic basis for their local use in treatment of oral lesions associated pain in HIV/AIDS patients in South-Western Uganda.
- ItemContamination Potentials of Household Water Handling and Storage Practices in Kirundo Subcounty, Kisoro District, Uganda(Hindawi Journal of Environmental and Public Health, 2019) Alexander, Agensi; Julius, Tibyangye; Andrew, Tamale; Ezera, Agwu; Christine, AmongiWaterborne diseases constitute a major public health burden in developing and underdeveloped countries. Consumption of contaminated water causes health risk to the public, and the situation is alarming in rural areas. *e objective of this study was to assess the contamination potentials of different house water handling and storage practices in the Kirundo subcounty, Kisoro District, Uganda. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional and descriptive study in which 344 water samples were collected randomly and analysed for bacteriological contamination, total coliforms (TCs) and Escherichia coli per 100 ml, using the Most Probable Number (MPN) technique and reported in terms of CFU/100 ml. Results. *e 43.2% samples from unprotected water sources had total coliforms and 34.1% had Escherichia coli. In analysed household drinking water, 25% had total coliforms and 8.7% had Escherichia coli. Most drinking water sources were found to have coliform counts above the recommended national and international guidelines. *ere was a statistically significant difference among water sources with respect to total coliforms and Escherichia coli (p < 0.05). Conclusion. *e overall results indicated that there is a strong linkage between microbiological water quality and water source sanitation; hence, the protected water source was safer than unprotected water sources. For the unprotected water sources, protection strategies as well as monitoring are recommended for this community.
- ItemIn vitro Antibacterial Efficacy of Bidens pilosa, Ageratum conyzoides and Ocimum suave Extracts against HIV/AIDS Patients’ Oral Bacteria in South-Western Uganda(Scientific Research Publishing Inc., 2017-09-29) Joseph Obiezu, Chukwujekwu Ezeonwumelu; Muhammad, Ntale; Steve, Okwudili Ogbonnia; Ezera, Agwu; Julius, Kihdze Tanayen; Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Okonkwo, Chukwudi Onyeka; Anthonia, Shodunke; Ambrose, Amamchukwu Akunne; Onokiojare, Ephraim Dafiewhare; Jennifer, Chibuogwu Ebosie; Frederick, ByarugabaThe objective of the study was to determine the antibacterial efficacy of Bidens pilosa Aqueous (BPA), Bidens pilosa Ethanolic (BPE), Ageratum conyzoides Aqueous (ACA), Ageratum conyzoides Ethanolic (ACE), Ocimum suave Aqueous (OSA) and Ocimum suave Ethanolic (OSE) extracts on HIV/AIDS patients’ oral bacteria. Healthy green leaves of the plants were collected in Ishaka Uganda, processed and portions separately extracted with hot distilled water and cold ethanol. The susceptibility, MIC and MBC of each extract were determined using standard protocols. The bacteria had significant (p < 0.05) respective total susceptibilities of 35 [28.7%] to BPA; 42 [34.4%] to BPE; 61 [50.0%] to ACA; 45 [36.9%] to ACE; 38 [31.1%] to OSA; 32 [26.3%] to OSE; 105 (86.0%)] to ceftriaxone. BPE, ACA, OSA, OSE and ceftriaxone had significant MIC with [F(1, 13); P = 0.00 and BPA with F(1, 13); P = 0.03]. BPE, ACA, ACE, OSA and ceftriaxone had significant MBC with [F(1, 13); P = 0.00 and BPA with F(1, 13); P = 0.01] on the test bacteria (MANOVA). These tested medicinal plants’ extracts and ceftriaxone had significant activity against oral bacteria with ACA having the best activity when compared with the control. However, the plants’ extracts were resisted by some of the bacteria. These findings validate the claims of efficacy of Bidens pilosa , Ageratum conyzoides and Ocimum suave on oral lesions of HIV/AIDS patients made by traditional healers and local people in South-Western Uganda. We recommend a detailed study of structural identities and activities of the active antibacterial principle(s) in these plants for possible new drug entities and verification of the interactive effects of the principle(s) with ARVs and cotrimoxazole used daily by HIV/AIDS patients.
- ItemPrevalence of Bacterial Urinary Tract Infections and Associated Factors among Patients Attending Hospitals in Bushenyi District, Uganda(Hindawi International Journal of Microbiology, 2019) Martin, Odoki; Adamu, Almustapha Aliero; Julius, Tibyangye; Josephat, Nyabayo Maniga; Eddie, Wampande; Charles, Drago Kato; Ezera, Agwu; Joel, BaziraUrinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the major causes of morbidity and comorbidities in patients with underlying conditions, and it accounts for the majority of the reasons for hospital visit globally. Sound knowledge of factors associated with UTI may allow timely intervention that can easily bring the disease under control. (is study was designed to determine the prevalence of UTI by isolating and characterizing the different bacterial etiological agents and to evaluate the factors associated with UTI. In this crosssectional study, a total of 267, clean catch midstream urine (MSU) samples were collected aseptically and analyzed using standard microbiology methods. Data for the factors associated with UTI were obtained by use of questionnaires and standard laboratory tests for selected underlying conditions. (e study revealed 86/267 (32.2%) UTI prevalence among patients attending hospitals in Bushenyi District, Uganda. Escherichia coli was the most prevalent bacterial uropathogen with 36/86 (41.9%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus 27/86 (31.4%), Klebsiella pneumoniae 10/86 (11.6%), Klebsiella oxytoca 6/86 (7.0%), Proteus mirabilis 3/86 (3.5%), Enterococcus faecalis 3/86 (3.5%), and Proteus vulgaris 1/86 (1.2%). (is study has demonstrated that age ≤19 years, female gender, married individuals, genitourinary tract abnormalities, diabetes, hospitalization, indwelling catheter <6 days, and indwelling catheter >6 days had statistically significant relationships (p < 0.05) with UTI. Screening for UTI in hospitalized patients, female gender, married individuals, genitourinary tract abnormalities, indwelling catheter, and diabetics should be adopted.
- ItemSuperbugs-related prolonged admissions in three tertiary hospitals, Kano State, Nigeria(The Pan African Medical Journal., 2019) Alkali, Bashir; Garba, Iliyasu; Adamu, Almustapha Aliero; Abdurrazak, Kibiya; Muhammad, Hassan Abubakar; Ibrahim, Ntulume; Faruku, Sarkinfada; Ezera, AgwuIntroduction: Superbugs are pathogenic microorganism and especially a bacterium that has developed resistance to the medications normally used against it. As the superbug family increases, the need for appropriate diagnostic, treatment, prevention and control strategies cannot be over emphasized. Therefore, this work determined the distribution of superbug bacteria among patients on prolonged hospital admissions in three tertiary hospitals of Kano state, Nigeria. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was undertaken among 401 patients from medical, surgery, orthopedic and burn Centre wards in a three tertiary hospitals in Kano state. A sample collected comprises wound/pus, urine, urine catheter and nasal intubation and were analysed using standard microbiological methods for Acinetobacter spp and other related nosocomial bacterial pathogens. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: One hundred and thirty eight (138) isolates were recovered, from the studied participants. More than 80% of the nosocomial infections (Nis) were caused by Gram-negative bacteria, predominantly Escherichia coli, Klebseilla spp, Proteus spp, Pseudomona spp, and Acinetobacter spp. In-vitro antibiotic susceptibility test revealed that Acinetobacter were 100% resistant to Amoxicillin, Co-trimoxazole, Perfloxacin and Imipenem. Conclusion: The results of this study reported higher antibiotic resistant among Acinetobacter spp isolated from three studied hospitals. The healthcare manage of the these hospitals and ministry health need to take measures against this resistant bacteria (Acinetobacter spp) especially on prescribing antibiotics that showed 100% resistant from these studied hospitals.