Browsing by Author "Everd, Bikaitwoha Maniple"
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- ItemFruit and vegetable intake and mental health among family caregivers of people with dementia in Uganda(Elsevier GmbH, 2021) Herbert, E. Ainamani; Wilson, M. Bamwerinde; Godfrey, Z. Rukundo; Sam, Tumwesigire; Valence, Mfitumukiza; Everd, Bikaitwoha Maniple; Alexander, C. TsaiConsumption of fruits and vegetables is correlated with improved mental wellbeing. Although this growing body of research has been recognized by researchers and clinicians in high-income countries, fewer studies examining this relationship have been conducted in low- and middle-income settings. In this study, we sought to estimate the association between fruit and vegetable intake and symptoms of depression and anxiety. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 242 family caregivers of people with dementia in southwestern Uganda. Fruit and vegetable intake in the past week was measured with a food frequency questionnaire. Depression and anxiety were assessed using the depression and anxiety subscales of the 42-item Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales. Multivariable regression models were used to estimate the associations between fruits and vegetable consumption and depression and anxiety, adjusting for caregiving burden and other potential confounders. Depression symptom severity was negatively associated with consumption of jackfruits (b =-4.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], -8.96 to -0.39), green leafy vegetables (b =-14.1; 95% CI, -18.0 to -10.1), root vegetables (b =-14.0; 95% CI, -19.5 to -8.63), and other vegetables (b =-14.8; 95% CI, -19.3 to -10.3), and frequent consumption of vegetables (b =-1.91; 95% CI, -3.77 to -0.04). Anxiety symptom severity was negatively associated with consumption of green leafy vegetables (b =-12.2; 95% CI, -16.0 to -8.46), root vegetables (b=-12.6; 95% CI, -17.5 to -7.58), and other vegetables (b =-12.7; 95% CI, -17.0 to -8.40), and frequent consumption of vegetables (b =-2.07; 95% CI, -3.84 to -0.29). Our results suggest that fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with reduced depression and anxiety symptoms.
- ItemLessons learned from implementation of the Workload Indicator of Staffing Need (WISN) methodology: An international Delphi study of expert users.(BMC, 2021) Grace , Nyendwoha Namaganda; Audrey, Whitright; Everd, Bikaitwoha ManipleBackground Staffing of health services ought to consider the workload experienced to maximize efficiency. However, this is rarely the case, due to lack of an appropriate approach. The World Health Organization (WHO) developed and has promoted the Workload Indicators of Staffing Need (WISN) methodology globally. Due to its relative simplicity compared to previous methods, the WISN has been used extensively, particularly after its computerization in 2010. Many lessons have been learnt from the introduction and promotion of the methodology across the globe but have, hitherto, not been synthesized for technical and policy consideration. This study gathered, synthesized, and now shares the key adaptations, innovations, and lessons learned. These could facilitate lesson-learning and motivate the WHO’s WISN Thematic Working Group to review and further ease its application. Methods The study aimed to answer four questions: (1) how easy is it for the users to implement each step of the WISN methodology? (2) what innovations have been used to overcome implementation challenges? (3) what lessons have been learned that could inform future WISN implementation? and (4) what recommendations can be made to improve the WISN methodology? We used a three-round traditional Delphi method to conduct a case study of user-experiences during the adoption of the WISN methodology. We sent three email iterations to 23 purposively selected WISN expert users across 21 countries in five continents. Thematic analysis of each round was done simultaneously with data collection. Results Participants rated seven of the eight technical steps of the WISN as either “very easy” or “easy” to implement. The step considered most difficult was obtaining the Category Allowance Factors (CAF). Key lessons learned were that: the benefits gained from applying the WISN outweigh the challenges faced in understanding the technical steps; benchmarking during WISN implementation saves time; data quality is critical for successful implementation; and starting with small-scale projects sets the ground better for more effective scale-up than attempting massive national application of the methodology the first time round. Conclusions The study provides a good reference for easing WISN implementation for new users and for WHO to continue promoting and improving upon it.
- ItemTransitioning health workers from PEPFAR contracts to the Uganda government payroll(Health Policy and Planning, 2021) Everd, Bikaitwoha ManipleAlthough increasing public spending on health worker (HW) recruitments could reduce workforce shortages in sub-Saharan Africa, effective strategies for achieving this are still unclear. We aimed to understand the process of transitioning HWs from President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) to Government of Uganda (GoU) payrolls and to explore the facilitators and barriers encountered in increasing domestic financial responsibility for absorbing this expanded workforce. We conducted a multiple case study of 10 (out of 87) districts in Uganda which received PEPFAR support between 2013 and 2015 to expand their health workforce. We purposively selected eight districts with the highest absorption rates (‘high absorbers’) and two with the lowest absorption rates (‘low absorbers’). A total of 66 interviews were conducted with high-level officials in three Ministries of Finance, Health and Public Service (n=14), representatives of PEPFAR-implementing organizations (n=16), district health teams (n=15) and facility managers (n=22). Twelve focus groups were conducted with 87 HWs absorbed on GoU payrolls. We utilized the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research to guide thematic analysis. At the sub-national level, facilitators of transition in ‘high absorber’ districts were identified as the presence of transition ‘champions’, prioritizing HWs in district wage bill commitments, host facilities providing ‘bridge financing’ to transition workforce during salary delays and receiving donor technical support in district wage bill analysis—attributes that were absent in ‘low absorber’ districts. At the national level, multi-sectoral engagements (incorporating the influential Ministry of Finance), developing a joint transition road map, aligning with GoU salary scales and recruitment processes emerged as facilitators of the transition process. Our case studies offer implementation research lessons on effective donor transition and insights into pragmatic strategies for increasing public spending on expanding the health workforce in a low-income setting.