School of Medicine (KABSOM)
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- ItemEnvironmental justice in South Africa: the dilemma of informal settlement residents(GeoJournal. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10708-022-10808-z, 2023) Ruhiiga, T. M.; Kekana, H. N.,; Ndou ·, N. N.The concept of environmental justice is well established in the literature; however, schol- ars still battle to agree on what it really means. This concept has become more relevant to the studies of informal settlements amongst others. The location and environmental variables in informal settlements suggests a variety of injustices that comes with loca- tion, limited access to water, poor or lack of sanita- tion, challenges with transport availability, accessibil- ity, affordability, and lack of other social amenities. These and many other socio-economic needs forms part of the value chain of environmental justice debates across the world. This paper deals with envi- ronmental justice in the informal settlements of Kos- mos, in the Madibeng Local Municipality, Bojanala Region in the North-West Province of South Africa.The paper highlights some of the environmental chal- lenges faced by the informal settlement residents such as pollution, waste management (landfill sites, waste collection) sanitation and water provision. The paper explores how the Kosmos informal settlement com- munity has been excluded from decision making pro- cesses regarding their own environment and consid- ers the levels of environmental injustices commonly associated with this kind of practice.
- ItemGreen tea silver nanoparticles improve physiological motor and cognitive function in BALB/c mice during inflammation(2023) Herbert Izo, Ninsiima; Ejike, Daniel Eze; Kenneth, Ssekatawa; Halima, Nalugo; Caroline, Asekenye; David, Onanyang; Edson Ireeta, Munanura; Moses, Ariong; Kevin, Matama; Gerald, Zirintunda; Ngala Elvis, Mbiydzenyuy; Fred, Ssempijja; Adam Moyosore, Afodun; Ibe Michael, Usman; Oscar Hilary, Asiimwe; Julius, Tibyangye; Keneth Iceland, KasoziInformation on the basic changes associated with green tea small molecules in acute inflammation is deficient. The purpose of the study was to characterize and establish the effects of green tea silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) following inflammation in BALB/c male mice. In this study, green tea silver nitrate nanoparticles were characterized and the extract were made up to constitute high (100%), medium (10%), and low (1%) concentrations for administration. Acute inflam- mation was induced in groups I–V of the experimental rodents by injecting 0.5 ml/kg of fresh egg albumin on the subplantar surface of the right hind paw and animals were monitored for 36 h. Group I–III were administered 100%, 10%, 1% green tea nanoparticles extract while group IV was given diclofenac. Group V was the positive control while group VI was the negative control that received the vehicle. Paw edema was measured at a 2 h interval for 3 days, while the pain was assessed by measuring the locomotion activity using the voluntary wheel running and the anxiety- like behavior. Hypersensitivity was measured through the temperature sensation experiment and a non-linear regression analysis was done. Here, synthesized green tea AgNPs registered anabsorbance band at 460 nm, phytochemicals due to presence of organic functional groups of O––C––O of oxycarbons, of C––C of a conjugate alkene, C––O of a stretching bond of a secondary alcohol. The silver green tea nanoparticles were spherical, covered by a slimy layer, capped and stable. Green tea AgNPs significantly decreased temperature hypersensitivity in BALB/c male mice and this demonstrated their protective effects. Low concentrations of green tea nanoparticles inhibited edema thus mimicking effects of diclofenac, however, the percentage of inhibition was highest in medium and high silver-tea nanoparticles concentrations demonstration the impor- tance of concentration in therapeutics. Anxiety was lowest in BALB/c male mice treated with high concentrations of silver green tea nanoparticles, and this led to increased locomotory activity in mice. Green tea AgNPs have strong anti-inflammatory effects at high concentrations. Concen- trations of green tea AgNPs modulated basic sensory and motor behaviors in BALB/c male mice demonstrating their importance in complementary and integrative medical practice.
- ItemAn analysis of heavy metals contamination and estimating the daily intakes of vegetables from Uganda(Toxicology Research and Application, 2021) Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Eric Oloya, Otim; Herbert Izo, Ninsiima; Gerald, Zirintunda; Andrew, Tamale; Justin, Ekou; Grace Henry, Musoke; Robert, Muyinda; Kevin, Matama; Regan, Mujinya; Henry, Matovu; Fred, Ssempijja; Ejike, Daniel Eze; Mauryn, Atino; Bede, Udechukwu; Ronald, Kayima; Patrick, Etiang; Emmanuel Tiyo, Ayikobua; Stellamaris, Kembabazi; Ibe Michael, Usman; Sheu Oluwadare, Sulaiman; Phyllis Candy, Natabo; Grace Nambatya, Kyeyune; Gaber El-Saber, Batiha; Ochan, OtimEnvironmental contamination with elevated levels of copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr 6þ), cadmium (Cd), and nickel (Ni)—all states of which are found in Uganda—raises health risk to the public. Pb, Cr 6þ, Cd, and Ni for instance are generally considered nonessential to cellular functions, notwithstanding the importance of the oxidative state of the metals in bioavailability. As such, we aimed in this study (i) to evaluate heavy metal concentrations in four vegetables from a typical open-air market in Uganda, (ii) to assess the safety of consuming these vegetables against the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended limits of heavy metals consumption, and (iii) to formulate a model of estimated daily intake (EDI) among consumers in the country. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in five georeferenced markets of Bushenyi district in January 2020. Amaranthus, cabbages, scarlet eggplants, and tomatoes were collected from open markets, processed, and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Modeled EDI, principal component (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were conducted to identify relationships in the samples. Results: The levels of essential elements in the four vegetables were found to fall from Co > Cu > Fe > Zn. Those of non-essential metals were significantly higher and followed the pattern Cd > Cr > Pb > Ni. The highest EDI values were those of Cu in scarlet eggplants, Zn in amaranthus, Fe in amaranthus, Co in amaranthus, Pb in cabbages, total Cr in scarlet eggplant, Cd in cabbages and tomatoes, and Ni in cabbages. In comparison to international limits, EDIs for Zn, Cu, Co and Fe were low while Ni in cabbages were high. PCA showed high variations in scarlet eggplant and amaranthus. The study vegetables were found to be related with each other, not according to the location of the markets from where they were obtained, but according to their species by CA. Conclusion: The presence of non-essential elements above WHO limits raises policy challenges for the consumption and marketing of vegetables in the study area. Furthermore, low EDIs of essential elements in the vegetables create demand for nutritious foods to promote healthy communities
- ItemTaurine Prevented Biochemical Alterations in Chronic Restraint-Stressed Wistar Rats(FUW Trends in Science & Technology Journal, www.ftstjournal.com, 2022) Iliya, Ezekiel; Agnes Igimi, Odey; Stephen Olawale, Ajayi; Ejike, Daniel Eze; Obioha, MaryStress has the potential of altering physiological homeostasis. The body’s ability to cope under stressful stimuli is a vital determinant of health and disease conditions. In this study, Wistar rats were weighed and randomly allocated into four groups (n=6): group A: control (1 ml/kg of distilled water), group B: (100 mg/kg of taurine), group C: (200 mg/kg taurine) and group D: received 400 mg/kg taurine. The treatments were administered once daily (60 minutes) prior to the commencement of the stress sessions by oral gavage for 21 days. During the experiment, concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and activity of acetylcholinesterase were evaluated in the fore brain homogenate samples. Other biochemical parameters assayed in the serum were the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The result revealed significant (p < 0.05) increase in the brain AChE activity in taurine 100 mg/kg when compared to the control group. Also there was significant (p < 0.05) increase in total protein in all the taurine treated groups but a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in albumin in the group that was administered 100 mg/kg taurine when compared with 200 and 400 mg/kg groups. There was no significant (p > 0.05) difference in the serum MDA concentration and activities of SOD, CAT and GPx in all the taurine treated groups when compared with the control group. The results of this study suggested that, taurine has immense potential as an anti-stress agent of great therapeutic relevance
- ItemEtracarpidium Conophorum Extract Exhibits Anti-Fatigue Activity in Rats Via Reduced Protein Catabolism, Increased Antioxidant Status and Delayed Lactate Elevation(FUDMA Journal of Sciences (FJS), 2021) Ugochukwu Vincent, Igbokwe; Ejike, Daniel Eze; Moses Dele, Adams; Karimah Mohammed, Rabiu,; Iliya, Ezekiel; Prisca Ojochogu, Ajeka; Adam Moyosore, AfodunThirty rats of both sexes were assigned into 5 categories of six animals apiece. Animals in the unadministered (control) group were placed on distilled water. Group 1M and Group 1F animals were administered 500 mg/kg body weight (b.w) of T. conophorum aqueous nut extract whereas animals in Group 2M and Group 2F were administered 750 mg/kg dosage of the extricate (0.5 ml) orally once daily for 32 days. Phytoconstituents present in the extract include: saponins, flavonoids, tannins, phenols and alkaloids. The extract at 750mg/kg b.w notably (p<0.05) raised extracellular glucose in masculine rats when matched with males that received 500 mg/kg b.w. The 500 mg/kg dose of the extract appreciably (p<0.05) elevated BUN in both sexes, but with reduction in both groups at 750 mg/kg b.w when juxtaposed with their respective untreated animals. The extract at 500 mg/kg b.w increased LDH activity in male group when compared with male rats that received 750 mg/kg dose. The 750-extract dosage did not statistically (p>0.05) alter LDH activity in both sexes. The extract at 500 and 750mg/kg b.w increased the 3rd‒6th swim in male rats. Substantive (p<0.05) rise in swimming endurance time was first noticed at the 2nd swim when matched up with the control and group treated 500 mg/kg b.w, in female rats. Sequel to these research findings, it is hypothesized that the anti-weakness effect of T. conophorum might be adduced to delayed increase in lactate and reduction in protein catabolism.