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- ItemAccess of Women to Higher Education in Uganda: An Analysis of Inequalities, Barriers and Determinants(University of London Institute of Education, 1993) Kwesiga, Joy ConstanceThe study analyses factors affecting women's access to higher education in Uganda, where women are under-represented at all levels of education, as students, teachers, and managers. This reflects women's low status in Ugandan society. The conceptual framework is derived from literature covering Women in Development, the human capital concept of investment in education, the indirect benefits of educating women, and social theories of gender inequality. Literature on general educational access factors, mainly focusing on Sub-Saharan Africa is reviewed, using Hyde's (1991) three-fold classification of family, societal, and institutional factors. A sample of four primary schools, sixteen advanced level secondary schools and eleven higher education institutions provided empirical data. A crosssection of over 600 Ugandan students, teachers in secondary schools and higher education institutions, political and civic leaders and parents responded to questionnaires. Decision-makers at sample institutions and the Ministry of Education headquarters were interviewed, and documentary analysis also covered official reports, documents and records, previous research and the mass media. Although focus is on the higher education level, lower levels are investigated to provide insight into causes of diminishing numbers of female students as one climbs the educational ladder. The central conclusion is that the family, society and the state in Uganda act as if they are constantly weighing the profitability of investing in boys' or girls' education, albeit not in the conventional way of measuring earnings of educated workers, but rather assessing the future functional value of the individual. Lower status within the family structure, lower perceived social value, exacerbated by general economic constraints and inadequate educational structures make girls' education, particularly higher education, appear less profitable than that of boys. This obscures the indirect benefits that families and society would reap from higher rates of female participation in education.
- ItemRole of Rewards Management on Employee Performance in the Banking Sector.(Uganda Management Institute, 2011) Alex, KanyesimeThe study topic was to examine the role of rewards management on employee performance in the banking sector, using a case study of centenary bank. The study was conducted basing on the following objectives; to investigate the impact of fringe benefits on employee performance, to examine the contribution of pay incentives on employee performance, to establish the contribution of job satisfaction on employee performance, to establish the influence of sense of belongingness on employee performance and to establish the effect of organization policy on the performance of employees in the banking sector in Uganda. The research design was a case study design which adopted both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Simple random sampling technique and purposive sampling were used to select a sample size of 129 respondents of which it was composed of management members and employees. Data collection methods used was questionnaire and interviews. Data were later processed, analyzed, interpreted, discussed and presented to come up with conclusions and recommendations of the study. The findings of the study were that; pay incentives improve employee performance, there is high level employee belongingness and recognition which was attributed to improved performance of employees, employees were satisfied with their jobs they held which contributed to the improved performance of employees, and, the organization’s policies were friendly which greatly improved on the performance of employees in the banking sector in Uganda. The study concluded that; rewards which included pay incentives, fringe benefits, job satisfaction, employee recognition plus organizational policies influenced employee performance in centenary bank leading to effective utilization of resources, quality service delivery and meeting deadlines. The study recommended that; conducting a national drive and public sensitization about all the new services like internet banking, government intervention, employee training and development, extensive research and development, and, ensuring local community involvement in decision making like on the new services be introduced
- ItemDecentralized Planning, Budgeting and Service Delivery in Local Governments. A Case Study of Health and Education Services in Musanze District, Rwanda.(Kabale University, 2011) Samson, ManiragabaAccess to quality Health and Education services is critical to socioeconomic welfare and advancement of rural areas. The motivation for this study was to investigate key factors related to health and education services delivery particularly in relation to local government planning and budgeting for effective management local government revenues and expenditure on these services. The study was based on the following objectives: to examine the impact of decentralized planning, budgeting on health and education services delivery, to analyze the relationship between participatory planning, budgeting and delivery of health and education services; to assess the challenges encountered in decentralized planning, budgeting for effective health and education service delivery; to analyze strategies of improving decentralized planning, budgeting for effective delivery of health and education services. The research methodology employed a descriptive research design. The study was based on positivism orientation since it was not purely quantitative based, with a need of qualitative data. The target population of the study consists of 628 respondents. A sample was taken from each category using the Solvein’s formula to arrive at the minimum sample size of 244. The sampling methods used included purposive and simple random sampling. Both qualitative and quantitative data was collected using interview guide and questionnaire respectively. Thus, the overall results determined by percentage for the level of effective decentralized planning and budgeting in terms of effective financial planning and budgeting, fiscal accountability and transparency has effect on delivery of health and education services delivery in Musanze district was (77.9%). The major results further indicates that, there was a significant relationship between the decentralized planning and budgeting and delivery of health and education services which was very satisfactory (76.8%). The recommendations were that the central government of Rwanda fund adequately and timely monitor the utilization of funds by local governments. Districts should improve on effective planning, budgeting in order to improve on social economic welfare of the people.
- ItemProcurement Process and The Performance of Government Funded Projects: A Case Study of Rulindo District Local Government, Rwanda(Kabale University, 2011) Perpetue, KamuyumbuThe study focused on the procurement process and the performance of government-funded projects, using a case study of the Rulindo District local government in Rwanda. Its primary goal was to investigate the procurement process used by local governments to obtain goods, works, and services. Its specific objectives were to analyse factors that affect the public procurement process of government projects in Rulindo district local government, explain gaps in the procurement process and their effect on the success of government-funded projects in Rulindo district local government, discuss the support provided by the Rwanda Public Procurement Authority (RPPA) to Rulindo district local government, explore the time it takes Rulindo district local government to complete government-funded projects, and identify possible causes of delays in the public procurement process of government-funded projects in Rulindo district local government. Using survey design, it was possible to get a variety of views and opinions from procurement officers, who were sampled and selected both purposefully and by simple random sampling techniques. The views, opinions, attitudes, and experiences of respondents were obtained using a questionnaire as the main instrument. The study revealed that there were delays in public procurement due to the procurement law itself, budget constraints, a lack of qualified personnel in public procurement, a lack of procurement plans, the financial capacity of contractors, bureaucracy, and a lack of monitoring of awarded tenders. Local governments were recommended to develop annual procurement plans based on the availability of funds, look for qualified personnel and define mechanisms for retaining them, and develop a monitoring framework that would allow them to better monitor procurement
- ItemContribution of Savings and Internal Lending Communities to the Youth Livelihood in Rwanda: The Case of Gikongoro Diocese Project 2006-2010(Kabale University, 2011) Jacques, SezikeyeThis study set out to assess the socio-economic impact of SILC on youth livelihood development through the increase in access to finances to boost business and income-generating activities within rural settings in Rwanda, as well as looking at possible challenges and limitations for a proper recommendation that may result in the expansion of several youth groups. The study's objectives were to assess the social economic impact of SILC on youth livelihood development in Gikongoro diocese, to determine whether SILC has increased youth access to financial services, and to determine the influence of SILC on youth starting small businesses.The study employed qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection, which included the use of questionnaires, the use of interview methods, observation, and also documentary methods while in the field. The findings were obtained, interpreted, discussed, and analyzed, and then later summarized in tables. The researcher went ahead to give a summary of the findings, conclusion, and recommendations of the report as they were given by the respondents. The findings clearly showed that savings and internal lending communities have a great impact on youth livelihood development in Gikongoro diocese in that they help in diversifying livelihood income strategies and financial assets. Also, they increase individual wealth and allow members to invest money in income-generating assets, though they face some problems in trying to enhance financial access to the youth, like corruption among the members of the groups, a lack of knowledge to handle finance issues among the youth since most of them are school dropouts, poor management accountability of funds given to many youth, and a failure to make proper decisions among many youth; but in a nutshell, they have contributed greatly towards improving the living standards of the youth in Gikongoro diocese.
- ItemMarketing Cooperatives and sustainable Agricultural development in Rulindo District, Rwanda(Kabale University, 2012) Nkubito, Habyarimana Jean PierreThe study examined the contribution of marketing cooperatives in sustaining the development of agriculture in Rulindo district of Rwanda. The objectives of the study were; to identify activities and services of marketing cooperatives – driven agriculture that are leading to sustainable agricultural development in Rulindo district, to analyse the perceptions of marketing cooperatives members toward agricultural marketing cooperatives activities and services improvement in Rulindo district, to examine the contribution of marketing cooperatives to the socio-economic development and environmental management by rural farmers in Rulindo district, to identify challenges to the development of marketing cooperatives-driven Agriculture, in Rulindo district. The literature was reviewed in lines with objectives. The methodology used in this study included, descriptive survey design with qualitative and quantitative data collection approaches, questionnaire and sampling. The data was collected from a sample population of 95 members randomly selected from thirteen marketing cooperatives –driven agriculture; one Agro dealers marketing cooperatives, five Crops production and marketing cooperatives, five Livestock production and marketing cooperatives, one Crops and livestock production and marketing cooperatives and one Environment conservation and management marketing cooperatives. Randomly selected agricultural marketing cooperatives are located in five district zones; North, South, Central, West and East and in the respective five sectors; Cyungo, Shyorongi, Mbogo, Burega, and Bushoki; each sector in each district zone. The findings revealed that the agricultural marketing cooperatives addressed in the study made considerable socio-economic and environmental contribution to the sustainability of agricultural development and to the well being of their members. Members felt optimistic that marketing cooperatives activities and services brought some sort of improvement in the sustainability of agricultural development and in the living condition of the people in their community and wish the marketing cooperatives activities and services to expand. Challenges encountered by agricultural marketing cooperatives towards sustaining the development of agriculture in Rulindo district were identified and categorized into five sections; organizational or internal, external, infrastructural, natural and socio-cultural and economic challenges. The most important of them were: limited Capacity on management of agricultural marketing cooperatives, inadequate initial capital, lack of transparency and accountability, low price of farm produces, high cost of production, low linkage with financial institution, small and fragmented farm holdings, lack of market structure, lack of storage and transportation facility, lack of access, usage and ownership of ICTs, climate change, inappropriate distribution of agricultural assets and population pressure on land resources. The study recommends that collective savings action is encouraged because it strengthens members’ market position, bargaining power, lobbying power, meeting their household consumption needs and enhancing potential income generating capacity together with investing on own education and health care requirements.
- ItemPoverty and Academic Performance of primary Schools in Kabale Municipality.(Kabale University, 2012) Justus, NiwagabaThe study was on the effect of poverty on academic performance in municipality schools of Kabale district. The study was carried out under three objectives; to find out how the home environment of the child affect his/her academic performance; to establish how poor feeding of the child affects his/her performance and how inadequate scholastic materials affect the pupils’ academic performance. The study was conducted using both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The sample size of the study included; 1 inspector of schools, 5 head teachers, 36 teachers, 8 PTA members and 40 pupils. The sample study was selected using purposive and simple random sampling techniques and data was collected using observation check list, interviews and questionnaires. Data was described, presented using tables and analyzed using percentages in drawing conclusions and recommendations. The findings indicated that the home environment of the child had a direct bearing on his/ her academic performance. Families with conducive and flexible learning environments provided the pupils with reading and writing skills which were benchmarks for good performances. The study also found out that the educational level of the parents, number of members in the family and the parent’s marital status attributed to the child’s behavior, attitude towards education and academic performance. On feeding of pupils, the study found out that every pupil deserved good feeding at school and at home. Therefore the quality, quantity of food served, when and how much is served had a direct bearing on the pupil’s performance in all the schools. On inadequate scholastic materials, the study found out that most schools lacked the basic teaching and learning materials like text books, classrooms, desks, libraries, offices and good toilets, notebooks, pens, mathematical tools, maps, Graphs and other curricula copies in almost all the schools. The study concluded that the absence of scholastic materials affected the over- all performance in schools. On home environment, the study recommended for more sensitization on the parents through work- shops, seminars and meetings on the relevant conditions or the provision of flexible environment both at school and at home. On feeding of pupils, the study recommended for the feeding of children on a well -balanced diet. The quality and quantity of foods taken by the child have a direct bearing on academic performance. The study also recommended for the provision of adequate scholastic materials like uniforms, text books, pens, pencils, mathematical sets, maps, graphs, charts, libraries and good structures. Their adequacy had a direct bearing on the pupils’ academic performance.
- ItemCommunity Participation and the sustainability of Development projects: A case Study of Essential Nutrition and Health package Project in Kabuga, Gasabo District, Rwanda.(Kabale University, 2012) Bernard, BayaseseThe study sought to examine the extent to which community participation contributed to the improvement of design and implementation of development projects and their sustainability. The specific objectives of the study were to examine modalities for community participation in development projects, to analyze the benefits of community participation and how participation leads to sustainability of development projects, to establish the conditions required for achieving sustainability of development projects through community or participation and to examine the challenges faced by the community in sustaining development projects. The study adopted four research questions namely: what are the modalities for community participation in development projects, what are the benefits of community participation and how participation leads to sustainability, what are the conditions required for achieving sustainability of development projects through community or participation and what are the challenges being faced by the community in sustaining community development projects. The study adopted a case study research design because it was more appropriate for this research. The study collected data from a sample of 367 who were selected randomly out of a population of 7982. Data was collected through the use of literature review, interviews and questionnaires. Data was analyzed using SPSS software and presented in tables. Ethical guidelines were followed in the study including obtained informed concept from the respondents and getting ethical clearance from Kabale University. Findings also revealed that the respondents participated in projects in a number of ways including identification of stakeholders, participation in the identification of their needs and directing the goals of the ENHP project, information dissemination among others. It was also revealed that local participation of the community in projects benefited both the projects and the community through better designs; cost effectiveness, less corruption, equitable distribution of resources among others. It was revealed that after the project closure, the local communities maintained the projects through development of levies at a flat rate, voluntary contributions, and contribution of materials among others. The study concluded that community participation in projects greatly contributes to the sustainability of projects. It also concluded that the community participates through consultations, taking part in project design, organizing and implementing activities. The study recommended that communities should be empowered through training and equipping them with management skills in order to sustain projects effectively. It also recommended that open accountability of resources should be encouraged so that communities can build and support projects effectively by contributing money.
- ItemNaads and Poverty Reduction in Kabale District(Kabale University, 2012) Matthew, JimtexkuuleUsing a case study of the Uganda National Agricultural Advisory Services in Kabale district, this study sought to investigate the perceptions of farmers on beneficiary participation, analyse the effect of farmer participation on NAADS program performance, investigate the factors affecting beneficiary participation and to suggest best practices for beneficiary participation. A randomly selected sample of 368 farmers from five NAADs program participating sub-counties were interviewed using an interview guide designed to address the study objectives. Additional information on the study objectives was obtained from five sub-county NAADS extension staff of the selected sub-counties, the Kabale district NAADS Coordinator and the Kabale district production officer. Results showed that most of the households had married household heads in the age bracket 25-54 years and less than half of household’s members had not attained formal education. Sorghum, beans, sweet potatoes and solanum potatoes are the main crop enterprises, while goats, poultry and piggery are the main livestock species kept. Regarding farmer perceptions of NAADS program, most of the respondents were satisfied with the way information was being shared among beneficiaries, with the way consultations were being made and the way the NAADS program promoted collaboration. However, less than half of the respondents were satisfied with the empowerment that the program gave. Generally, participation in the NAADS program resulted in increased crop and livestock productivity as well as improved household incomes and welfare. The key factors affecting participation were identified as purpose of the project, institution hosting the project, sex of beneficiary, membership to organized groups and, communication and information sharing. The study recommended that a regulatory frame work for beneficiary participation should be in place, that regular feedback should be provided by project managers, removal of corrupt project leaders, involve beneficiaries from beginning to end and beneficiary participation in all decisions. The study also recommended further research to investigate critical roles of all relevant beneficiaries that were not covered by the present study.
- ItemPromoting Private Sector Investment in Rwanda: Acase study of Rwanda Private Sector Federation(Kabale University, 2013) Nkundimana, VincentThe purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Rwanda Private Sector Federation in the promotion of investments. To achieve that objective, questionnaires, interview guides and focus group discussions were used as research instruments. A total of 70 respondents were involved in this study comprising of PSF staff and sectoral associations members, government officials and other private sector operators who are not enlisted with PSF The results show that Private Sector Federation has played a crucial role in the promotion of investments in Rwanda as judged by respondents--participating in local business exhibitions and trade fairs (70 percent), in local investment seminars and missions (14 percent). However, PSF contributed less by participating in regional and international investment seminars and missions (5 percent), and in Regional and International business exhibitions and trade fairs (2 percent). The private sector also played an outstanding role in Public Private Partnerships (PPP) with the government in some priority projects of the country. The results also showed that PSF achieved success in policy advocacy by influencing the government for the removal of non service based fees, in the review of business laws, labour code and national social security policy. Among the challenges raised by Private Sector operators with regards to investment promotion in Rwanda are shortage of skilled labor (20 percent), limited access to finance (16 percent), tax barriers (20 percent) and low business management skills (11 percent), while robust governance and absence of corruption (30 percent), access to markets (25 percent) untapped opportunities in agriculture, energy and tourism (14 percent).and sustained high economic growth (16 percent) are the main opportunities available to them. The investigation showed that there is a great need for closer relationships between PSF and the government in every endeavor aimed at promoting investments in Rwanda, as well as in addressing challenges encountered by private companies. Towards that end, a new model for a successful investment promotion framework in Rwanda has been proposed.
- ItemCash Flow Statements as tool for Assessing Liquidity in Commercial Company: A case study of Ndoli Super Market Kigali-Rwanda.(Kabale University, 2013) Jeanbaptiste, Baribwira NshutiThe main purpose of this study was to find out the extent to which statement of cash flows could be used as tool of assessing the liquidity of commercial companies especially Ndoli Supermarket in Kigali-Rwanda. The specific objectives were to investigate the effectiveness of cash flows statement used by NDOLI Supermarket in Kigali-Rwanda; to find out the level of liquidity of NDOLI Supermarket in Kigali-Rwanda; and to evaluate the relationship between cash flows statement and liquidity of NDOLI Supermarket in Kigali-Rwanda. The methodology used is the descriptive and correlational research. The study population was 48 employees of NDOLI Supermarket Kigali-Rwanda. The questionnaires were addressed to the 37 respondents, and the study used documentary technique. Methods of analysis were descriptive statistics methods, correlation coefficient, and financial ratios analysis. The findings of this study were presented in accordance to research objectives. The effectiveness of cash flow statements was presented to tables from 4.6 to 4.8 which confirmed income statement was on average rate of 88.41%.Balance sheet/ financial position were on average rate of 90.55%, and Cash flow analysis was average rate of 88.23% of respondents’ confirmation at NDOLI Supermarket Kigali-Rwanda. The liquidity of NDOLI Supermarket Kigali-Rwanda from 2013-2015 were shown to the tables 4.9 to 4.22 which confirmed that increase of return on assets was on rate of 54.1%; return on equity was on rate of 91.8%; return on investment was on rate on 86.5%; gross profit margin was on rate of 86.5%; and current ratio was on 94.6%. Generally, liquidity evolution has averaged on rate of 68.91%.Current Ratio; it was 1.13 in 2013; it was became 0.84 in 2014; and it was 0.98 in 2015. Quick Ratio (Acid Test) where it was 1.13 in 2013; while in 2014, QR was 0.84 and it was became 0.98 in 2015. The relationship between cash flow statement and liquidity of NDOLI Supermarket Kigali-Rwanda was shown the table 4.23 which confirmed that effective cash flow statement contributes 87.56% of liquidity evolution. As conclusion, according to the findings from NDOLI Supermarket Kigali-Rwanda. The study recommends that Ndoli Supermarket should improve the quality of services and the trainings of employees in relation to annual financial statement reports to achieve more profits.
- ItemFactors affecting Academic Performance of Primary Schools in Ikumba Subcounty, Kabale District.(Kabale University, 2013) Christopher, MusinguziThis study was designed to investigate factors affecting academic performance of primary schools in Ikumba sub-county. Emphasis was put on trying to establish the effect of parents’ provision of scholastic materials, teacher quality and homework on pupils’ academic performance in primary schools in Ikumba sub-county Kabale district. The study employed a cross sectional survey design. It ensured that sub groups within the population were represented proportionally within the sample. The validity and reliability of research instruments was established and data was collected from 186 respondents consisting of 120 pupils, 60 teachers and 6 head teachers using the simple random sampling method. To analyze data chi square goodness of fit (x2) test was used with the aim of establishing the relationship between parents’ provision of scholastic materials, teacher quality, homework and academic performance of pupils in primary schools in Ikumba sub-county. The findings showed the existence of a significant relationship between parents’ provision of scholastic materials, teacher quality, homework and academic performance. On the basis of the findings, the study concluded that If all the parents of Ikumba sub-county provided scholastic materials, the children could perform well because these helped the children acquire knowledge, skills, and make learners ready to learn. Quality teachers did also matter. Committed, competent and knowledgeable teachers produced better learning and pupils benefit a lot from them. Most parents helped pupils in doing homework which was very important for academic performance of children because it improved the children’s weak areas and sharpened their minds. Head teachers should regularly conduct school based continuous professional development courses (CPDs) for teachers in order to maintain and update the quality and competence of teachers. Parents should provide conducive places for pupils to do home work from home in order to help them concentrate and do their homework well.
- ItemWomen Development Through Women Cooperatives In Kicukiro District Of Kigali City(Kabale University, 2013) Firmin, MurayireThe purpose of this research was to investigate women's participation in development through cooperatives and how cooperatives can be made more effective as instruments to empower women in development in Rwanda, taking Kicukiro District of Kigali City as a case study. It was carried out with the following study objectives in mind: to investigate women's contributions to development through cooperatives, to identify the challenges that women face in development through cooperatives, and to devise strategies for overcoming setbacks that women face in Kicukiro District of Kigali City development through cooperatives in Kigali City. Data was collected using a questionnaires, face-to-face interviews, and focus group discussions, and they were guided by the questionnaire, which was distributed to be filled out by 100 respondents, who constituted the sample size of this study. Existing literature on cooperative enterprises was reviewed, and the information generated contributed to a better understanding of the cooperative movement and its contributions to the socioeconomic welfare of its members. The study showed that cooperatives have helped women contribute greatly to development, although, as members of the cooperative, they were facing a multiplicity of challenges. These challenges were tested with a variety of strategies ranging from social to economic measures. There is a need for government support in order to exploit the full potential of the cooperative movement and attain women's development through i
- ItemMonitoring and Evaluation as Key Factor in Performance of Health Institutions, A Case Study of Kigali Health Institute, Kigali Rwanda.(Kabale University, 2013) Jean, PierrekwizeraWithin this study the researcher reports the findings on the investigation conducted on the contribution of monitoring and evaluation towards the performance in Health Institutions a case study of Kigali Health Institute, Kigali Rwanda. The sample of the study was composed by male and female of lecturers and students from Kigali Health Institute. The problem of this study was that monitoring and evaluation tools still face many challenges and have not offer enough and suitable information about performance in health institutions. Aim of the study was to investigate the contribution of monitoring and evaluation to the performance of health institutions in Rwanda. The data were collected by using a questionnaire. The study found that 79% of respondents says that monitoring and evaluation system is quality assurance 13% is assessment and research done on the performance and 8%says that monitoring and evaluation system used by KHI is evaluation of course design.85% of respondents says that the system generate information from student’s lecture evaluation form. 15%of respondents says that information is from the field where students who graduates from KHI works.94% of respondents from lecturers and staff and 89% of respondents from students say that monitoring and evaluation system has contributed to the performance of KHI. The following factors positively aspects on the monitoring and evaluation system has enhanced its performance: student’s failure and repeaters are very minimal, curriculum review and student –teacher assessment. After analyzing and presentation of the data the researcher discovers that results found are similar. According to what other authors said Monitoring and evaluation are complementary. The researcher recommended a need to enlarge the work not only Lecturers and students but also all Rwandan categories. The study recommended KHI as well as MINEDUC that they should have serious measures to introduce national policy in monitoring and evaluation system and different stakeholders should work hand in hand with KHI and other highlighted contributors so that the performance is taken as a priority among other program at KHI.
- ItemInternal Control Systems and service delivery in Kabale Municipal Council, Kabale District, Uganda.(Kabale University, 2013) Boaz, AbomugishaMunicipal services in Kabale Municipality are notoriously sub- standard. The study investigated the link between this phenomenon and service quality determinants, including resourcing and accountability and staff capacity gaps and how these gaps may be related to internal control systems in place. Specifically the study investigated whether and how internal control systems employed support service delivery, the relationship between compliance, fraud prevalence, resource adequacy and service delivery; it assessed how control environment impacts effectiveness of internal controls in relation to service delivery. Purposive and Random sampling techniques were used to select a sample from the study Population. Data were analyzed and presented qualitatively and quantitatively. The analysis and findings showed that the factors that negatively affected service delivery included lack of integrity followed by weak internal control systems, inadequate funding and delayed funds release from the Central Government. Prevalence of frauds and compliance lapses were noticed from 2006 up to 2014, particularly as regards to adherence to internal control norms and submission of reports. Inadequate training for staff has led to staff capacity gaps. It was concluded that while internal controls are in place, the problem is that they are not adequately followed, hence affecting service delivery. It is therefore recommended that all stakeholders should follow internal controls put in place for effective and efficient delivery of services, the division of work and segregation of duties should be upheld, Each department should be represented on the procurement committee for transparency purposes; the control environment should be improved by management to allow any stakeholder to access documents, and culprits that breach norms and regulations are found, they should be punished accordingly, Finally the management of the Council should prioritize services which are critical to the public, like Road construction, Waste disposal, Education, Security and Health.
- ItemThe Role of Internal Audit Function in the Performance of Rwanda Mutual Health Insurance Fund. Case of Gicumbi District(Kabale University, 2013) Bizimungu, JeanThis study was carried out on the role of the internal audit function in the performance of the Anda Mutual Health Insurance Fund in the case of Gicumbi District. The study sought to examine and assess the impact of the internal audit function on the performance of the Anda.Health Insurance Fund in Rwanda It was also to highlight the role played by internal auditing in achieving the goals of the Mutual Health Insurance Fund of the Gicumbi District and to verify the internal controls used by MHIF in implementing the Mutual Health Insurance Fund in the Gicumbi District. The Mutual Health Insurance Fund of Gicurnbi District has caught the attention of the internal audit system is an effective tool for performance amelioration and is considered a victory to escape mismanagement. In the Rwandan context, this same initiative and hope have been emphasized in the country's mismanagement reduction strategy papers. The study took the case of Gicumbi District, which was one of 30 districts in Kwanda. To achieve the study's objectives, 50 MHIF staff members from two branches in the Gicumbi District were interviewed.Semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect primary data, books from libraries, and other documents. used to collect secondary data. It has been found that the Internal Audit Unit can assist the MHIF in maintaining its profitability without compromising its sustainability. As a result, the study recommended that, in order to achieve quality performance from MHIFs in Rwanda, the government, MHIF administrators, and other stakeholder groups ensure effective internal control. The conclusion was that the internal audit function is a necessary requirement, and suggestions were made that the Rwandan government enhance this service to cover the performance of mutual health insurance funds.
- ItemElectronic Commerce and the Success of Projects. A case study of the Entrepreneurship promotion project of the University of Rwanda.(Kabale University, 2013) Principe, CamakeAfter solving a big number of problems related to IT infrastructure and IT human resource in Rwanda in general and in the University of Rwanda in particular, there was still a gap that was not yet covered in the use of IT in everyday life. With qualitative and quantitative research approaches, this research evaluated the effects of Electronic Commerce on Success of projects on the basis of project outputs, outcomes and impacts taking PECBC Project as a case study. Specifically, the research investigated the level and potential of applicability of E-Commerce in PECBC business processes and towards realization of expected business outcomes, the level of embezzlement in the PECBC project and showed how this embezzlement can be impacted by e-commerce tools, assessed the challenges being faced by the entrepreneurs under PECBC sponsorship and gave recommendations on how they can be addressed in the context of available electronic commerce applications. The findings showed that the availability of IT infrastructure and human Resource, the age group of project partners which is considered as the internet users’ generation and their high level of education put the potential applicability of E-commerce at high level. Various levels of embezzlement have been found where project employees deviated the target people because of favoritism, project beneficiaries also deviated the business from the planning where some of them submitted very good project proposal, won the competition and after getting the sponsorship they replaced it by another one which might not have won the competition, simply because it is easier to implement or because of conflict of interests. It was also found that Electronic commerce can impact the embezzlement where by web-based M&E system ensures timely reporting of potential failures or deviation and allows prompt action (s) to mitigate such challenges and risks. Conflict of interest, lack of awareness, clandestineness and poor M&E were revealed as main challenges and hindrance to implementation and realization of objectives of this project. As recommendations, the researcher recommends that projects in Universities take the advantages of all of different fields of expertise available in their area of operation and involve them in each phase of project life cycle.PECBC leadership was recommended to embrace a positive vision and strategy towards the use of ICT and specifically electronic commerce and or any other online ways of monitoring and evaluation of beneficiaries and employees. University of Rwanda and SPARK were recommended to confront PECBC employees and beneficiaries whom businesses were sponsored and be given opportunity to give their side of the story about this funds disappearance for further measure.
- ItemGender Inequality and household production in Kanungu District-Uganda.(Kabale University, 2013) Ronnah, OwembabaziThe study was on Gender inequality and household production in kanungu district. It investigated how gender inequality in households affected or influenced household production. It was guided by specific objectives of analysing the causes of gender inequality, examining the effects of gender inequality on household production and establishing strategies of addressing gender inequality inorder to improve household production in kanungu district. The methodological approach included both qualitative and quantitative approaches in describing and analysing the data into information as to discern on gender inequality and household production.Samplesize of 395 respondents for community and local government leaders was determined mathematically through use of slovenes formula.In order to analyze the data, all questionnaires were collected and responses to each of them in the questionnaires by subject were coded, edited and tabulated, data was calculated in percentage. The findings of the study show that there wereeffects of gender inequality on house hold production like low production with 24% , underdevelopment with 22% and violation of human rights with 14%. The causes were cultural norms with 30%,educational levels with 26% and ignorance with 15%. The study established that, despite the fact that the Uganda constitution provides for affirmative action (Article32 of the Uganda constitution) to enhance womens advancement and participation in development, genderinequality still existed. The study concluded that where under investment in womens education, there is lower there is lower growthrates.It was recommended that there should be creation of gender awareness ( social mobilisation), provision of equal employment opportunities and that more efforts should be put by the government on emphasising education for all.
- ItemMicrofinance and Socio-Economic Development in Byumba Sector. A case Study of Reseau Interdiocesain De Micro Finance (Rim S.A)(Kabale University, 2013) Fraterne, NzeyimanaThe research on Micro- finance and socio –economic development in Byumba sector, a case study of RIM S.A was carried out to know if there was a relationship between services given by RIM SA and poverty alleviation among its members . The general objective of the study was to assess the role of RIM S.A microfinance in the promotion of socio- economic development in Byumba sector. The specific objectives of this study was designed as follows: To investigate how credit service of RIM SA have increased income of its clients, to explore how training in financial skills rendered by RIM S.A have reduced vulnerability of people in Byumba sector, to examine the challenges faced by clients of RIM S.A micro finance in accessing services. In this study, the researcher used different methods for collecting data as follows: Questionnaire, interview, personal participative observation and documentation techniques in the process of gathering information. The researcher in this study used a sample size of 351beneficiaries of RIM S.A and 4 staff members from 4573 beneficiaries of RIM S.A Byumba. The researcher found that RIM S.A Micro finance participated in poverty alleviation among its borrowers through improving their well being like school fees payment for children, health insurance payment, food security payment and enterprise expansion among others. The study findings indicate that microfinance alone cannot meet all the needs and resolve a wide range of difficulties of the poor. It was suggested that the government may increase its involvement in the provision of regulations to govern the microfinance programs, credit management, the interest rate and safe guard the property of the membership. However further research should be carried out on The Impact of Microfinance on the Small Scale Industry in Rwanda; The Possibilities of Providing Asset Loans Rather than Cash loans for some Beneficiaries; Financial Accessibility and Poverty Eradication, Education and Performance of Small Scale Business Enterprises.
- ItemCorporate governance and organizational Performance: A case of Institut Polytechnique De Byumba, Rwanda.(Kabale University, 2013) Bonaventure, TwagirumugabeThe performance of firms and the way they are governed worldwide have attracted great deal of attention in the past decades owing to corporate failures. This study was examined the relationship between corporate governance and organizational performance. Unlike most studies on corporate governance which predominantly use only financial variables affecting governance, the study took a different approach by using non-financial variables. This combined set of variables was used for theoretical and empirical models. Based on the extended literature, the researcher developed a conceptual framework and a set of hypotheses to examine the relationship between corporate governance and organizational performance. Board characteristics considered in this research include board size, board of director role, gender diversity, and educational qualification of board members and decision making and implementation. It adopted quantitative methodological framework through which the primary data collected from a sample of 124 respondents involving 108 employees and 16 board members at IPB and were analyzed using both regression and correlation analysis techniques to find the relationship between corporate governance and organizational performance on one hand and the degree of relationship between corporate governance and organizational performance. The findings shows that large board size, board skill, management skill, longer serving, decision making and implementation are positively associated with the performance of organizations. Organizations are encouraged to adopt good corporate governance practices to improve their performance and also to protect the interest of the shareholders.