Browsing by Author "Matama, Kevin"
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- ItemAntimalarial Combination Therapies Increase Gastric Ulcers Through an Imbalance of Basic Antioxidative‑Oxidative Enzymes in Male Wistar Rats.(Kabale University, 2020) Kalange, Muhamudu; Nansunga, Miriam; Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Kasolo, Josephine; Namulema, Jackline; Kasande Atusiimirwe, Jovile; Tiyo Ayikobua, Emanuel; Ssempijja, Fred; Munanura, Edson Ireeta; Matama, Kevin; Semuyaba, Ibrahim; Zirintunda, Gerald Gerald; Okpanachi, Alfred OmachonuObjective: Antimalarials are globally used against plasmodium infections, however, information on the safety of new antimalarial combination therapies on the gastric mucosa is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Artesunate-Amodiaquine and Artemether-Lumefantrine on ulcer induction. Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and major histological changes in male Wistar rats following ulcer induction using Indomethacin were investigated. Gastric ulcers were in four groups; Group I was administered Artesunate, group II received Artesunate- Amodiaquine, group III received Artemether-Lumefantrine, and group IV was a positive control (normal saline). GroupV was the negative control consisting of healthy rats. Results: Antimalarial combination therapies were associated with a high gastric ulcer index than a single antimalarial agent, Artesunate. In addition, levels of MDA were significantly higher in the combination of therapies while levels of GSH were lower in comparison to Artesunate and the negative control. Microscopically, antimalarial combination therapies were associated with severe inflammation and tissue damage than Artesunate in the gastric mucosa showing that antimalarial combination therapies exert their toxic effects through oxidative stress mechanisms, and this leads to cellular damage. Findings in this study demonstrate a need to revisit information on the pharmacodynamics of major circulating antimalarial agents in developing countries. Keywords: Antimalarials, Pharmacodynamics, Antimalarial Agents, Malaria, Developing Countries, Gastric Ulcers.
- ItemAnxiety, Anger and Depression Amongst Low-Income Earners in Southwestern Uganda During the COVID-19 Total Lockdown(Kabale University, 2021) Archibong, Victor; Usman, Ibe Michael; Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Osamudiamwen, Eric Aigbogun Jr.; Josiah, Iﬁe; Monima, Ann Lemuel; Ssebuufu, Robinson; Chekwech, Gaudencia; Terkimbi, Swase Dominic; Owoisinke, Okon; Mbiydzenyuy, Ngala Elvis; Adeoye, Azeez; Aruwa, oshua Ojodale; Afodun, Adam Moyosore; Odoma, Saidi; Ssempijja, Fred; Ayikobua, Emmanuel Tiyo; Ayuba, John Tabakwot; Nankya, Viola; Onongha, Comfort; Sussan, Henry; Matama, Kevin; Yusuf, Helen; Nalugo, Halima; MacLeod, Ewan; Welburn, Susan ChristinaBackground: Low-income earners are particularly vulnerable to mental health, consequence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown restrictions, due to a temporary or permanent loss of income and livelihood, coupled with government-enforced measures of social distancing. This study evaluates the mental health status among low-income earners in southwestern Uganda during the ﬁrst total COVID-19 lockdown in Uganda. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken amongst earners whose income falls below the poverty threshold. Two hundred and ﬁfty-three (n = 253) male and female low-income earners between the ages of 18 and 60 years of age were recruited to the study. Modiﬁed generalized anxiety disorder (GAD-7), Spielberger’s State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 (STAXI-2), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) tools as appropriate were used to assess anxiety, anger, and depression respectively among our respondents. Results: Severe anxiety (68.8%) followed by moderate depression (60.5%) and moderate anger (56.9%) were the most common mental health challenges experienced by low-income earners in Bushenyi district. Awareness of mental healthcare increased with the age of respondents in both males and females. A linear relationship was observed with age and depression (r = 0.154, P = 0.014) while positive correlations were observed between anxiety and anger (r = 0.254, P < 0.001); anxiety and depression (r = 0.153, P = 0.015) and anger and depression (r = 0.153, P = 0.015). Conclusion: The study shows the importance of mental health awareness in low resource settings during the current COVID-19 pandemic. Females were identiﬁed as persons at risk to mental depression, while anger was highest amongst young males. Keywords: COVID-19 response, Africa, Socio-economic impacts, Psychosocial, Hunger, Women.
- ItemCalcium and s100a1 Protein Balance in the brain– Heart axis in Diabetic Male Wistar Rats.(2020) Keneth Iceland, Kasozi,; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy; Ninsiima, Herbert Izo; Kasolo, Josephine; Matama, Kevin; Safiriyu, Abass Alao; Owembabazi, Elna; Ssempijja, Fred; Okpanachi, Alfred Omachonu; Valladares, Miriela BetancourtCalcium deregulation in diabetes mellitus (DM) is central to the brain–heart axis pathology. This has led to the use of medical plants in complementary medicine such as Amaranthus hypochondriacus (GA). The objective of the study was to establish the effects of grain amaranth feed supplementation on calcium, s100al
- ItemCalcium and s100a1 Protein Balance in the brain– Heart axis in Diabetic Male Wistar Rats.(Kabale University, 2021) Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy; Ninsiima, Herbert Izo; Kasolo, Josephine; Matama, Kevin; Safiriyu, Abass Alao; Owembabazi, Elna; Ssempijja, Fred; Okpanachi, Alfred Omachonu; Valladares, Miriela BetancourtObjectives: Calcium deregulation in diabetes mellitus (DM) is central to the brain–heart axis pathology. This has led to the use of medical plants in complementary medicine such as Amaranthus hypochondriacus (GA). The objective of the study was to establish the effects of grain amaranth feed supplementation on calcium, s100al protein and antioxidant levels on the brain–heart axis in diabetic male Wistar rats. Methods: The study involved six groups (n=5) with DM being induced in 20 rats. To the diabetic rats, Group I received mixtard®, Group II was positive control, Groups III and IV received GA feed supplementation at 25 and 50%. In the nondiabetic rats (n=10), Group V received 50% grain amaranth while Group VI was the negative control. The brain and heart tissues were harvested after five weeks and processed using standard methods. Results: Grain amaranth feed supplementation led to improved calcium levels in DM as compared to the positive control. This also led to increased s100a1, antioxidant levels in the brain–heart axis during DM. This then protected the tissues against oxidative damage, thus preserving tissue function and structure. Conclusions: Grain amaranth’s actions on calcium signaling subsequently affected s100a1 protein levels, leading to improved tissue function in diabetes. Keywords: Calcium, T2DM, Ethnomedicine, Grain Amaranth.
- ItemCerebral Cortical Activity During Academic Stress Amongst Undergraduate Medical Students at Kampala International University (Uganda)(Kabale University, 2022) Mujinya, Regan; Kalange, Muhamudu; Ochieng, Juma John; Ninsiima, Herbert Izo; Eze, Ejike Daniel; Afodun, Adam Moyosore; Nabirumbi, Ritah; Sulaiman, Sheu Oluwadare; Kairania, Emmanuel; Echoru, Isaac; Okpanachi, Alfred Omachonu; Matama, Kevin; Asiimwe, Oscar Hilary; Nambuya, Grace; Usman, Ibe Michael; Obado, Osuwat Lawrence; Zirintunda, Gerald; Ssempijja, Fred; Nansunga, Miriam; Matovu, Henry; Ayikobua, Emmanuel Tiyo; Nganda, Ponsiano Ernest; Onanyang, David; Ekou, Justine; Musinguzi, Simon Peter; Ssimbwa, Godfrey; Keneth Iceland, KasoziBackground: Stress among medical students is related to their academic lifespan; however, information on brain health among medical students from developing countries continues to be scarce. The objective of this study was to establish perceived academic stress levels, assess the ability to cope with stress, and investigate its effects on the visual reaction time (VRT), audio reaction time (ART), and tactile reaction time (TRT) in the somatosensory cortex among medical students of Uganda. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among preclinical (n = 88) and clinical (n = 96) undergraduate medical students at Kampala International University Western Campus. A standard Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was used to categorize stress into low, moderate, and severe while the ability to cope with stress was categorized into below average, average, above average, and superior stresscoper (SS). Data on reaction time were acquired through VRT, ART, and TRT using the catch-a-ruler experiment, and this was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: This study shows that preclinical students are more stressed than clinical students (PSS prevalence for low stress = preclinical; clinical: 40, 60%). Moderate stress was 48.4 and 51.6% while high perceived stress was 75 and 25% among preclinical and clinical students. Among male and female students in preclinical years, higher TRT and VRT were found in clinical students showing that stress affects the tactile and visual cortical areas in the brain, although the VRT scores were only signiﬁcantly (P = 0.0123) poor in male students than female students in biomedical sciences. Also, highly stressed individuals had higher TRT and ART and low VRT. SS had high VRT and ART and low TRT in preclinical students, demonstrating the importance of the visual cortex in stress plasticity. Multiple regression showed a close relationship between PSS, ability to cope with stress, age, and educational level (P < 0.05), demonstrating the importance of social and psychological support, especially in the biomedical sciences. Conclusion: Preclinical students suffer more from stress and are poorer SS than clinical students. This strongly impairs their cortical regions in the brain, thus affecting their academic productivity. Keywords:Brain Stress, Medical Education, Cerebral Cortex, Brains, Africans, Reaction Time (RT), Academic Stress
- ItemCorrection to: Antimalarial Combination Therapies Increase Gastric Ulcers Through an Imbalance of Basic Antioxidative‑Oxidative Enzymes in Male Wistar Rats.(Kabale University, 2020) Kalange, Muhamudu; Nansunga, Miriam; Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Kasolo, Josephine; Namulema, Jackline; Atusiimirwe, Jovial Kasande; Emmanuel Tiyo Ayikobua, Emmanuel Tiyo; Ssempijja, Fred; Munanura, Edson Ireeta; Matama, Kevin; Semuyaba, Ibrahim; Zirintunda, Gerald; Okpanachi, Alfred O.
- ItemCOVID-19-Related Mental Health Burdens: Impact of Educational Level and Relationship Status Among Low-Income Earners of Western Uganda(Kabale University, 2021) Lemuel, Ann Monima; Usman, Ibe Michael; Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Alghamdi, Saad; Aigbogun, Eric Osamudiamwen; Archibong, Victor; Ssebuufu, Robinson; Kabanyoro, Annet; Iﬁe, Josiah Eseoghene; Swase, Dominic Terkimbi; Ssempijja, Fred; Ayuba, John Tabakwot; Matama, Kevin; Onohuean, Hope; Kembabazi, Stellamaris; Henry, Rachael; Odoma, Said; Yusuf, Helen; Afodun, Adam Moyosore; Assaggaf, Hamza M.; Kairania, Emmanuel; Aslam, Akhmed; Okon, Owoisinke; Batiha, Gaber El-Saber; Welburn, Susan ChristinaObjective: The study aimed to investigate the relationship between mental health with the level of education, relationship status, and awareness on mental health among low-income earners in Western Uganda. Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out among 253 participants. Anxiety, anger, and depression were assessed using a modiﬁed generalized anxiety disorder (GAD-7), Spielberger’s State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2, and Beck Depression Inventory item tools, respectively. Results: The majority of our respondents were male (n = 150/253, 59.3), had a secondary level of education (104/253, 41.1), and were single (137/253, 54.2). No formal education and primary education (r2 = 47.4% and 6.4%, respectively) had a negative correlation with awareness of mental health care. In addition, no formal education had a positive correlation with anger and depression (r2 = 1.9% and 0.3%, respectively). Singleness in this study had a negative correlation with awareness of mental health care, anger, and depression (r2 = 1.9, 0.8, and 0.3%, respectively), and a positive correlation with anxiety (r2 = 3.9%). Conclusion: It is evident that education and relationship status inﬂuenced awareness on mental health care and mental health state among low-income earners in Western Uganda during the ﬁrst COVID-19 lockdown. Therefore, policymakers should strengthen social transformation through the proper engagement of low-income earners in this COVID-19 era. Keywords: Mental Healthcare, Awareness, Relationship, Status, Educational Level, COVID-19, Low-Income Earners, Western Uganda.
- ItemEmerging Anthelmintic Resistance in Poultry: Can Ethnopharmacological Approaches Offer a Solution?(Kabale University, 2022) Zirintunda, Gerald; Biryomumaisho, Savino; Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Batiha, Gaber El-Saber; Kateregga, John; Vudriko, Patrick; Nalule, Sarah; Olila, Deogracious; Mariam Kajoba, Mariam; Matama, Kevin; Kwizera, Mercy Rukundo; Ghoneim, Mohammed M.; Abdelhamid, Mahmoud; Alshehri, Sultan; Abdelgawad, Mohamed A.; Acai-Okwee, James; Zaghlool, Sameh S.Limited pharmacological studies have been conducted on plant species used against poultry helminths. The objective of this study was to provide a basis for plant based anthelmintics as possible alternatives against poultry anthelmintic resistance. The study justiﬁed the need for alternative anthelmintics. The study places emphasis on the increasing anthelmintic resistance, mechanism of resistance, and preparational protocols for plant anthelmintics and their associated mechanism of action. Pharmaceutical studies on plants as alternative therapies for the control of helminthparasites have not been fully explored especially in several developing countries. Plants from a broad range of species produce a wide variety of compounds that are potential anthelmintics candidates. Important phenolic acids have been found in Brassica rapa L. and Terminalia avicenniodes Guill. and Perri that affect the cell signaling pathways and gene expression. Benzo (c) phenanthridine and isoquinoline alkaloids are neurotoxic to helminths. Steroidal saponins (polyphyllin D and dioscin) interact with helminthic mitochondrial activity, alter cell membrane permeability, vacuolation and membrane damage. Benzyl isothiocyanate glucosinolates interfere with DNA replication and protein expression, while isoﬂavones from Acacia oxyphylla cause helminth ﬂaccid paralysis, inhibit energy generation, and affect calcium utilization. Condensed tannins have been shown to cause the death of nematodes and paralysis leading to expulsion from the gastro-intestinal tract. Flavonoids from Chenopodium album L and Mangifera indica L act through the action of phosphodiesterase and Ca2+-ATPase, and ﬂavonoids and tannins have been shown to act synergistically and are complementary to praziquantel. Artemisinins from Artemisia cina O. Berg are known to disrupt mitochondrial ATP production. Terpenoids from Cucurbita moschata L disrupt neurotransmission leading to paralysis as well as disruption of egg hatching. Yeast particle encapsulated terpenes are effective for the control of albendazole-resistant helminths. Keywords: Synthetic, Toxicity, Safety, Medicine, Ethnoveterinary, Parasites, Nematodes, Plant.
- ItemEpidemiology of Trypanosomiasis in Wildlife—Implications for Humans at the Wildlife Interface in Africa(Kabale University, 2021) Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Zirintunda, Gerald; Ssempijja, Fred; Buyinza, Bridget; Alzahrani, Khalid J.; Matama, Kevin; Nakimbugwe, Helen N.; Alkazmi, Luay; Onanyang, David; Bogere, Paul; Ochieng, Juma John; Islam, Saher; Matovu, Wycliff; Nalumenya, David Paul; Batiha, Gaber El-Saber; Osuwat, Lawrence Obado; Abdelhamid, Mahmoud; Shen, Tianren; Omadang, Leonard; Welburn, Susan ChristinaWhile both human and animal trypanosomiasis continue to present as major human and animal public health constraints globally, detailed analyses of trypanosome wildlife reservoir hosts remain sparse. African animal trypanosomiasis (AAT) affects both livestock and wildlife carrying a signiﬁcant risk of spillover and cross-transmission of species and strains between populations. Increased human activity together with pressure on land resources is increasing wildlife–livestock–human infections. Increasing proximity between human settlements and grazing lands to wildlife reserves and game parks only serves to exacerbate zoonotic risk. Communities living and maintaining livestock on the fringes of wildlife-rich ecosystems require to have in place methods of vector control for prevention of AAT transmission and for the treatment of their livestock. Major Trypanosoma spp. include Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, and Trypanosoma cruzi, pathogenic for humans, and Trypanosoma vivax, Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma evansi, Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Trypanosoma dionisii, Trypanosoma thomasbancrofti, Trypanosma elephantis, Trypanosoma vegrandis, Trypanosoma copemani, Trypanosoma irwini, Trypanosoma copemani, Trypanosoma gilletti, Trypanosoma theileri, Trypanosoma godfreyi, Trypansoma simiae, and Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) pestanai. Wildlife hosts for the trypansomatidae include subfamilies of Bovinae, Suidae, Pantherinae, Equidae, Alcephinae, Cercopithecinae, Crocodilinae, Pteropodidae, Peramelidae, Sigmodontidae, and Meliphagidae. Wildlife species are generally considered tolerant to trypanosome infection following centuries of coexistence of vectors and wildlife hosts. Tolerance is inﬂuenced by age, sex, species, and physiological condition and parasite challenge. Cyclic transmission through Glossina species occurs for T. congolense, T. simiae, T. vivax, T. brucei, and T. b. rhodesiense, T. b. gambiense, and within Reduviid bugs for T. cruzi. T. evansi is mechanically transmitted, and T. vixax is also commonly transmitted by biting ﬂies including tsetse. Wildlife animal species serve as long-term reservoirs of infection, but the delicate acquired balance between trypanotolerance and trypanosome challenge can be disrupted by an increase in challenge and/or the introduction of new more virulent species into the ecosystem. There is a need to protect wildlife, animal, and human populations from the infectious consequences of encroachment to preserve and protect these populations. In this review, we explore the ecology and epidemiology of Trypanosoma spp. in wildlife. Keywords: Trypanosomes, wildlife, Human-wildlife Interactions, Wildlife-Livestock Interactions, Human African Trypanosomiasis, Sleeping Sickness, Trypanosoma brucei Gambiense, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense.
- ItemMisconceptions on COVID-19 Risk Among Ugandan Men: Results From a Rapid Exploratory Survey, April 2020(Kabale University, 2020) Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; MacLeod, Ewan; Ssempijja, Fred; Mahero, Michael W.; Matama, Kevin; Musoke, Grace Henry; Bardosh, Kevin; Ssebuufu, Robinson; Wakoko-Studstil, Florence; Echoru, Isaac; Tiyo Ayikobua, Emmanuel; Mujinya, Regan; Nambuya, Grace; Onohuean, Hope; Zirintunda, Gerald; Ekou, Justine; Welburn, Susan ChristinaBackground: Transmission of COVID-19 in developing countries is expected to surpass that in developed countries; however, information on community perceptions of this new disease is scarce. The aim of the study was to identify possible misconceptions among males and females toward COVID-19 in Uganda using a rapid online survey distributed via social media. Methods: A cross-sectional survey carried out in early April 2020 was conducted with 161 Ugandans, who purposively participated in the online questionnaire that assessed understandings of COVID-19 risk and infection. Sixty-four percent of respondents were male and 36% were female. Results: We found signiﬁcant divergences of opinion on gendered susceptibility to COVID-19. Most female respondents considered infection risk, symptoms, severe signs, and death to be equally distributed between genders. In contrast, male respondents believed they were more at risk of infection, severe symptoms, severe signs, and death (52.7 vs. 30.6%, RR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.14–2.8). Most women did not share this perception and disagreed that males were at higher risk of infection (by a factor of three), symptoms (79% disagree), severe signs (71%, disagree), and death (70.2% disagree). Overall, most respondents considered children less vulnerable (OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 0.55–2.2) to COVID-19 than adults, that children present with less symptoms (OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 0.77–3.19), and that there would be less mortality in children (OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.41–1.88). Of female respondents, 76.4% considered mortality from COVID-19 to be different between the young and the elderly (RR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.01–2.92) and 92.7% believed young adults would show fewer signs than the elderly, and 71.4% agreed that elderly COVID-19 patients would show more severe signs than the young (OR = 2.2, 95%CI: 1.4, 4.8). While respondents considered that all races were susceptible to the signs and symptoms of infection as well as death from COVID-19, they considered mortality would be highest among white people from Europe and the USA. Some respondents (mostly male 33/102, 32.4%) considered COVID-19 to be a “disease of whites” (30.2%). Conclusion: The WHO has identiﬁed women and children in rural communities as vulnerable persons who should be given more attention in the COVID-19 national response programs across Africa; however, our study has found that men in Uganda perceive themselves to be at greater risk and that these contradictory perceptions (including the association of COVID-19 with “the white” race) suggest an important discrepancy in the communication of who is most vulnerable and why. Further research is urgently needed to validate and expand the results of this small exploratory study. Keywords: COVID-19, Uganda, Africa, United Nations Gender , impact children.
- ItemUniversity Lecturers and Students Could Help in Community Education About SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Uganda.(Kabale University, 2020) Echoru, Isaac; Keneth Iceland, Kasozi; Usman, Ibe Michael; Mukenya Mutuku, Irene; Ssebuufu4, Robinson; Decanar Ajambo, Patricia; Ssempijja, Fred; Mujinya, Regan; Matama, Kevin; Musoke, Grace Henry; Tiyo Ayikobua, Emmanuel; Ninsiima, Herbert Izo; Dare, Samuel Sunday; Ejike, Daniel Eze; Eriya Bukenya, Edmund; Keyune Nambatya, Grace; Ewan, MacLeod; Welburn, Susan ChristinaBac kground: The World Health Organization has placed a lot of attention on vulnerable communities of Africa due to their chronically weak health care systems. Recent findings from Uganda show that medical staff members have sufficient knowledge but poor attitudes toward coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitudes, and preparedness/practices of lecturers and students in the fight against COVID-19. Method: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of 103 lecturers and students both men and women of age group 18 to 69 years in western Uganda. Data were obtained through a pretested questionnaire availed online. Results : Knowledge on COVID-19 symptoms was highest in this order: fever > dry cough > difficulty breathing > fatigue > headache with no significant differences between lecturers and students. Knowledge of participants on transmission of COVID-19 was highest in the order of cough drops > contaminated surfaces > person-to-person contact > asymptomatic persons > airborne > zoonotic with no significant differences among lecturers and students. Lecturers and students were all willing to continue using personal protective equipment like masks, and personal practices such as covering the mouth while sneezing and coughing, no handshaking, and washing of hands with no significant differences in the responses. The positive attitudes that COVID-19 could kill, anyone can get COVID-19, and willing to abide by the set regulations against the pandemic showed personal concerns and desired efforts against COVID-19. Conclusion: The study identifies lecturers and students as potential stakeholders in the fight against community transmission of COVID-19. Keywords: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, coronavirus, community education, lecturers, students, western Uganda