Analysis of Bacteriological Quality of Domestic Water Sources in Kabale Municipality, Western Uganda
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In the present study, we assessed the bacteriological quality of water of drinking water sources in Kabale Municipality. A total of 28 water samples were collected from 14 water springs during the dry and wet season and analyzed for determination of Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB) using the membrane filtration method. Most water springs located in less than 20 meters away from residential areas were associated with bacterial contamination. The mean concentrations of E. coli, total coliforms, and THB were 24.07 CFU/100 ml, 85.71 CFU/100 ml, and 197.07 CFU/100 ml, respectively in the wet season. While in the dry season, the mean concentrations were 2 CFU/100 ml, 10 CFU/100 ml, and 91 CFU/100 ml for E. coli , total coliforms, and THB, respectively. There were significant differences between CFU of total coliforms, HTB, between wet and dry seasons (p = 0.026). Samples collected and analyzed during the wet season for total coliforms did not conform to WHO drinking water quality guideline value of no detection per 100 ml. The study concludes that the majority of spring water sources are located in less than 20 meters away from residential areas with significant paved areas, the presence of septic tanks and pit latrines. Wet season significantly affects the quality of domestic water sources than the dry season. The study recommends that spring water should be treated before drinking due to high bacteria concentrations which makes it unsafe for consumption.